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DECET omnis (omnes) homines, qui student
It becomes all men, who study

sese praestare caeteris animalibus, niti
themselves to excel the other animals, to endeavour with [their]

summa ope ne transeant vitam silentio
utmost might (that) they may not pass [their] life in silence

reluti pecora, quae natura finxit prona atque
even as cattle, which nature has formed prone and

obedientia ventri. Sed omnie nostra vis est
obedient to the belly. But all our force is

sita animo et corpore. Utimur imperio animi,
situate in mind and body. We use command of the mind,

magis servitio corporis. Alterum est
more (than) the service of the body. The other (the one) is

commune nobis cum Dis, alterum cum belluis.
common to us with the gods, the other with beasts.

Quo videtur mihi rectius quaerere gloriam opibus
By which it seems to me more-right to seek glory by the powers

ingenii quam virium, et quoniam
of the understanding than of forces (bodily strength), and since

vita ipsa, qua fruimur est brevis efficere
the life self, which we enjoy is short to effect [make]

memoriam nostri quam maxime longam.
the memory (remembrance) of us as most long.
[Endure most long.]

Nam gloria divitiarum et formae
For the glory of riches and of shape

est fluxa atque fragilis; virtus habetui
(beauty) is fleeting and frail; virtue is had

clara que aeterna. Sed magnum certamen
(accounted) bright and eternal. But a great contest

fuit diu inter mortalis (mortales), ne militaris
has been a long-time between mortals, whether military

res procederet magis vi corporis, an
thing (tactics) would advance more by force of body, or

virtute animi. Nam et priusquam incipias
by virtue of mind. For and (even) before-that you may begin

est opus consulto, et ubi
(there) is need with (of) deliberation, and when

consulueris facto
you may have deliberated (have deliberated) of deed 
[need of doing]

mature. Ita utrumque indigens per se, alterum
seasonably. So either (is) defective by self, the other

eget auxilio alterius. Igitur initio
(the one) wants the aid of the other. Therefore in the beginning

reges (nam id fuit primum nomen Imperii in
kings (for that has been the first name of government in

terris) diversi pars exercebant
the lands, (world) different (indisposition) part did exercise

ingenium, alii corpus: etiam tum vita
the understanding, others the body: also then the life

hominum agitabatur sine cupiditate, sua
of men was spent without covetousness, their-own

satis placebant cuique. Vero postea quam
were-sufficiently-pleasing [to] every-one. But after that

Cyrus in Asia, Lacedaemonii et Athenienses
Cyrus in Asia, (and) the Lacedemonians and Athenians

in Graecia, coepere subigere urbes atque nationes;
In Greece, began to subdue cities and nations;

habere lubidinem dominandi causam
to have [began to consider] the lust of ruling a cause

belli, putare maxumam gloriam in
of war, [and] to think [that] the greatest glory [was] in

maxumo imperio; tum demum compertum est
the greatest command then at length it was found

periculis atque negotiis, ingenium 
by dangers and affairs, [that] the understanding 

plurimum posse 
to be most-powerful (could effect most)

in bello. Quod si virtus animi
in war. But if the virtue of the mind

regum atque imperatorum valeret, ita in
of kings and of commmders might prevail, [equally] so in

pace ut in bello, humanae res haberent sese
peace as in war, human things would have themselves

aequabilius atque constantius; neque
(would be) more-even and more-steady; neither

cerneres aliud ferri alio, 
would you perceive another (one thing) to be borne elsewhere, 

neque omnia, mutari ac misceri. 
neither all (things) to be changed and to be mingled. 

Nam imperium retinetur facile iis artibus, quibus 
For government is retained easily by those arts, by which 

initio partum est. Verum ubi pro labore, desidia;
at first it was-acquired. But when instead-of labour, idleness;

pro continentia et aequitate, lubido atque
instead-of continence and equity, lust and

superbia invasere, fortuna immutatur simul
pride came-in (seized), fortune is changed together

cum moribus. Ita imperium transfertur semper a
with manners. So authority is transferred always from

minus bono ad quemque optumum. Quae
(the) less good (man) to each best. Whatever

homines arant, navigant, aedificant,
(things) men plough, navigate, build, 

omnia parent virtuti. Sed
all obey to virtue (mental powers). But

multi mortales, dediti ventri, atque somno, indocti
many mortals, addicted to the belly, and to sleep, untaught

que inculti, transiere vitam sicuti
and unpolished, have passed life as (persons)

peregrinantes: quibus profecto contra naturam
travelling: to whom indeed [contrary to nature] (their)

corpus fuit voluptati, anima oneri. Ego
body has been for pleasure, the soul for a burden. I

aestumo vitam que mortem eorum juxta, quoniam
estimate the life and death of them equally, since

siletur de utraque. Verum enimvero
it is silent (nothing is said) concerning each. But truly

is demum videtur mihi vivere et frui anima, qui,
he at length appears to me to live and to enjoy life, who,

intentus aliquo negotio, quaerit famam praeclari
intent on some business, seeks the fame of illustrious

facinoris ant bonae artis. Sed in magna copia
enterprise or of good art. But in the great abundance

rerum, natura ostendit aliud iter
of things, nature points-out another (different) journey (course)

alii. Est pulchrum benefacere reipublicae,
so another (person). It is fair to do-well to the republic,

etiam benedicere est hand absurdum. Licet
also to speak-well is not absurd. It is-lawful

fieri clarum vel pace vel bello: et multi
to be made illustrious either by peace or by war: and many

landantur, qui fecere, et qui scripsere facta
are praised, who have done, and who have written deeds

aliorum. Ac tametsi par gloria handquaquam
of others. And although equal glory by-no-means

sequatur scriptorem et actorem rerum, tamen
may follow (follows) ths writer and actor of things, yet

videtur quidem mihi in primis arduum scribere res
It seems [indeed to me] particularly difficult to write things

gestas: primum, quod facta sunt exaequanda
carried-on (history): first, because deeds are to-be-equalled

dictis; dein quia plerique putant
by sayings (language); afterwards because most think

delicta, quae reprehenderis, dicta
the faults, which you may have reproved, (to be) said from

malevolentia et invidia; ubi memores de magna
ill-will and envy; when you may record of the great

virtute bonorum; quae quisque putet
virtue of good (men); whatever (things) each may think

facilia factu sibi, accipit aequo
(thinks) easy to be done to (by) himself, he receives with even

animo; supra ducit pro falsis, veluti
mind; beyond (that) he leads (deems) [all] for false, [or] as

ficta. Sed ego adolescentulus, initio latus sum
feigned. But I, a very-young-man, in the beginning was-borne

studio ad Rempublicam; que ibi multa
by inclination to the Republic; and there many (things)

fuere advorsa mihi. Nam andacia, largitio,
have been adverse to me. For boldness, bribery,

avaritia, vigebant pro pudore, pro abstinentia,
covetonsness did flourish instead-of modesty, abstinence,

pro virtute; quae tametsi animus
instead-of virtue; which (things) although (my) mind

insolens malarum artium, aspernabatur;
unaccustomed of (to) bad arts, did despise;

tamen imbecilla aetas, corrupta, ambitione, tenebatur
yet (my) weak age, corrupted by ambition, was held

inter tanta vitia. Ac cum dissentirem ab
among so-great vices. And when I would dissent from

reliquis malis moribus, nihilominus eadem cupido
the rest (others') bad manners, nevertheless the same desire

honoris, quae vexabat caeteros, fama et invidia
of honour, which did harass the rest, fame and envy

(vexabant) me. Igitur ubi animus requievit ex
(did harass) me. Therefore when (my) mind rested from

multis miseriis atque periculis, et decrevi
many miseries and dangers, and I resolved [that] (my)

reliquam aetatem habendam procul
remaining age to-be-had [should] (be passed) at-a-distance

a Republica, non fuit consilium
from the Republic (public affairs), it has not-been (my) design

conterere bonum otium socordia atque desidia; neque
to consume good leisure in sloth and idleness; nor

vero agere aetatem, intentum servilibus
truly to act (spend) age (my life), intent on servile

officiis, colendo agrum aut venando: sed
offices, in cultivating field (land) or in hunting: but

regressus eadem, a quo incepto 
having returned to the same (pursuit), from which undertaking 

que studio, mala ambitio detinuerat me, statui
and study, bad ambition had detained me, I resolved

perscribere res gestas Romani
to write-through things (the achievements) of the Roman

populi carptim, uti quaeque videbantur digna
people with-selection, as each did seem worthy (of)

memoria: magis eo, quod animus erat
memory: more on-this-account, because (my) mind was

liber mihi a spe, metu, partibus Reipublicae.
free to me from hope, fear, [and the] factions of theRepublic.

Igitur absolvam paucis de
Therefore I will acquit (dispose) in a few (words) concerning
[I will relate in a few words]

conjuratione Catilinae quam
the conspiracy of Catiline as

verissume potero. Nam existumo id facinus
most-truly [as] I shall be-able. For I think that enterprise

in primis memorabile novitate sceleris atque
particularly memorable from the novelty of (its) wickedness and

periculi: de moribus cujus hominis pauca
danger: coneerning the morals of which man a few (things)

sunt explananda, prius quam faciam initium
are to-be-explained, before-that I may make a beginning

of relating.

Lucius Catilina, natus nobili genere,
Lucius Catiline born (descended) of a noble race,

fuit magna vi et animi et corporis,
was (a man) (of) great strength and (both) of mind and of body,

sed male que pravo ingenio. Intestina bella,
but (of) a bad and depraved disposition. Intestine wars,

caedes, rapinae, civilis discordia fuere grata huic
slaughters, rapines, civil discord were agreeable to this

ab adolescentia; quo ibi exercuit
(man) from (his) youth; and there (in them) he exercised

suam juventutem. Corpus patiens inediae,
his youth. His body (was) patient of hunger

algoris, vigiliae, supra quam est
of cold, of watchfulness (want of sleep), beyond than (what) is 

credibile cuiquam: animus andax, subdolus,
credible to any-one: (his) mind adventurous, crafty.

varius, simulator ac dissimulator cujuslibet rei,
changeable, a counterfeiter and dissembler of any thing,

appetens alieni, profusus sui; ardens in
desirous of another's (property), lavish of his own; ardent in

cupiditatibus; satis eloquentiae, parum sapientiae:
desires; (he had) sufficient of eloquence, little of wisdom:

vastus animus semper cupiebat immoderata,
(his) vast mind always did desire extravagant

incredibilia, nimis alta. Post dominationem
Incredible, (and) too high (things). After the domination

Lucii Sullae, maxuma lubido republicae
(usurpation) of Lucius Sylla, a very great lust of the republic

capiundae invaserat hunc, neque
to be-taken (of seizing the republic) had seized him, nor

habebat quidquam pensi quibus
had he any of thought [nor did he care] by what

modis assequeretur id, dum pararet regnum
means he might attain, while he should procure the kingdom

sibi. Ferox animus agitabatur magis que
for himself. (His) Fierce mind was agitated more and

magis indies, inopia familiaris rei,
more daily, from want of familiar thing (private property),

at conscientia scelerum; utraque quae auxerat
and a consciousness of crimes; both which be had increased

his artibus, quas memoravi supra.
by those arts (practices), which I have recorded above

praeterea corrupti mores civitatis incitabant,
moreover the corrupt manners of the state did incite (him),

quos, luxuria atque avaritia, pessuma mala,
which (manners), luxury and avarice, the worst evils

ac diversa inter se, vexabant.
and different between themselves, did harass (did pervert).

Res ipsa videtur hortari, quoniam
The thing (subject) self seems to exhort (me), since

tempus admonuit de moribus civitatis,
time (occasion) has reminded (me) of the manners of the state,

repetere supra, de disserere paucis
to retrace above [farther back] and discuss in a far (words)

instituta majorum domi que militiae,
the institutions of (our) ancestors at-home and abroad [in war],

quomodo habuerint rempublicum,
in-what-manner they may have had (managed) the republic,

que quantam reliquerint, et disserere
and how-great they may have left (they left it), and [to discuss]

ut paulatim immutata, facta sit
how by-degrees having been changed, it may have been made

pessuma ac flagitiosissuma ex
(it became) the worst and most-disgraceful from (having been)

the fairest.

Trojani, sicut ego accepi, initio,
The Trojans, as I have received (have heard), in the beginning,

condidere atque habuere urbem Romam;
(first) built and had (inhabited) the city Rome;

qui, Aenea duce, profugi vagabantur
who, Aeneas (being their) leader, [as] exiles did wander

incertis sedibus; que cum his
in uncertain seats (having no fixed habitation); and with these

Aborigines, agreste genus hominum, sine legibus,
the Aborigines, a rustic race of men, without laws,

liberum atque solutum. Postquam hi
free and loosed (unrestrained). After-that they

convenere ibi in una moenia dispari
assembled there into one (the same) walls (city) of different

genere, dissimili lingua, viventes alius alio
race, of dissimilar language, living one (each) in a different

more, est incredibile memoratu, quam facile
custom, it is incredible to-be-recorded, how easily

coaluerint. Sed postquam
they may have coalesced (they incorporated). But after-that

res eorum aucta civibus, moribus,
thing (state) of them having been increased by citizens, morals

agris, videbatur satis prospera, 
(moral institutions), lands did appear sufficiently prosperous, 

que satia pollens, invidia, orta est ex opulentia
and suffiently powerful, envy arose out-of opulence,

sicuti pleraque mortalium habentur.
as most of mortal (things) are had (are conducted),

Igitur reges que finitimi populi
kings and neighbouring peoples (people) (began)

tentare bello. Pauci ex amicis esse auxilio.
to-try (them) in war. A few of (their) friends to be for aid

Nam caeteri, perculsi metu, aberant
(brought them aid). For the rest, stricken with fear, kept-aloof

a periculis. At Romani, intenti domi que
from dangers. But the Romans, intent at-home and

militiae, festinare, parare, alius
of war (abroad), (began) to hasten, to prepare, the other (one)

hortari alium ire obviam hostibus; tegere
to exhort another to go towards the enemies; to protect

libertatem, patriam, que parentes armis.
Liberty, (their) country, and parents with arms.

Poet ubi propulerant pericula, virtute
Afterward when they had repulsed dangers by virtue (valour)

portabant auxilia sociis atque amicis; que parabant
they did carry aids to allies and friends; and did prepare

amicitias magis beneficiis dandis quam
(procure) friendships rather by favours to-be-given than

to be received. [Rather by giving, than by receiving favours.]

Habebant legitimum imperium, regium nomen
They did have a legitimate government, a royal name

imperii: delecti quibus corpus erat infirmum
of government: chosen (men) to whom the body was weak

annis, ingenium validum sapientia,
by years, (their) understanding strong with wisdom

consultabant reipublicae. Hi, vel
did consult (legislate) for the republic. These, either from (their) 

aetate vel similitudine curae, appellabantur
as or from the similitude of (their) care, were called

Patres. Post ubi regium imperium, quod
fathers. Afterward when the royal government, which

initio fuerat libertatis
in the beginning had been (established) (for the sake) of liberty

conservandae, atque reipublicae augendae, convertit
to-be-preserved, and of the repnblic to-be-increased, turned

in superbiam que dominationem, more
(itself) into pride and tyranny, (their) practice

immutato, fecere sibi annus 
having been changed, they made for themselves annual 

imperia, binos imperatores: eo mode putabant 
governments, two rulers: by that means they did think the 

humanum animum posse minime insolescere per 
human mind to-be-able least to-grow-iasolent through excess-

licentiam. Sed ea tempestate coepere quisque extollere
of-power. But at that time they began each to extol

se magis que magis, que habere
(exert) himself more and more, and to have (his)

ingenium in promptu: nam boni
understanding in readiness: for good [and talented] (men)

sunt suspectiores regibus quam mali; que
are more-suspected to kings than bad [and stupid]; and

aliena virtue est semper formidolosa his.
strange (another's) virtue is always formidable to these.

Sed est incredibile memoratu, quantum civitas
But it is incredible to be recorded, how-much the state

creverit brevi, libertate 
may have increased (increased) in a-short-time, liberty

adepta: tanta cupido gloriae incesserat.
having been obtained: to-greet a desire of glory had come-in.

Jamprimum juventus, simul-ac erat
Now-first the youth, as-soon-as it was (they were)

patiens belli, discebat in castris militiam
able-to-endure war, did learn in the camps war

usu per laborem; que habebat lubidinem
from habit through exercise; and did have pleasure

magis in decoris armis, et militaribus equis, quam
rather in beanttful arms, and military horses, than

in scortis atque conviviis. Igitur labos erat non
in harlots and banquets. Therefore labour was not

insolitus talibus viris, non-ullus locus asper aut
unusual to such men, not-any place rough or

arduus; armatne hostis non formidolosus:
difficult (inaccessible); an armed enemy [was] not formidable:

virtus domuerat omnia. Sed maxumum certamen
virtue had subdued all (things). But a very great contest

gloriae erat inter ipsos: quisquerat properabat ferire 
glory among them: each did hasten to strike

hostem, ascendere murum, conspici dum faceret
the enemy, to scale the wall, to be beheld while he might do

tale fatcinus: putabant eas divitias,
(did perform) such enterprise: they did think these riches,

eam bonam famam, que magnam nobilitatem.
that good fame, and great nobility (distinction).

Erant avidi landis, liberales pecuniae; volebant
They were desirous of praise, liberal of money; they did will

ingentem gloriam, honestas divitias. Possem
(wished for) great glory, honourable riches. I could

memorare in Quibus locis Romanus populus
to relate in what places the Roman people

fuderit maxumas copiae hostium parva
may have routed very great forces of the enemies with a small

manu; quas urbes munitas natura
band; what cities fortified by nature (they) [the Roman people]

ceperit pugnando, ni ea res
may have taken (they took) in-fighting, unless that thing

traheret nos longius ab incepto. Sed
would draw us farther (too far) from (our) undertaking. But

profecto fortuna dominatur in omni re; ea celebrat
indeed fortune controls every thing; she celebrates

que obscurat cunctas res magis ex lubidine
eclipses (depresses) all things rather from caprice

ex vero. Res gestae
from truth (merit). The things carried-on (deeds)

Atheniensium, sicut ego existumo fuere satis 
of the Athenians, as I think, had been suffeciently

amplae que magnificae; verum tamen aliquanto
ample (great) and magnificent; but however by somewhat

minores quam feruntur fama: sed quia
less than they are borne (represented) by fame: but because

magna ingenia scriptorum provenere ibi,
great understandings (abilities) of writers sprang-up there,

facta Atheniensium celebrantur per terrarum
the deeds of the Atheniaus are celebrated through the whole

orbem pro maxumis. Its virtus eorum, qui
world for the greatest. So the virtue of those, who

fecere ea, habetur tanta, quantum
have done those (things), is accounted so-great, as

praeclara ingenia potuere 
the brilliant understandings (of their writers) have been able to 

extollere ea, verbis. At ea copia 
extol them [by their writings]. But that abundance (of writers) 

nunquam fuit Romano populo: quia quisque
never has been to the Roman people: because each

prudentissimus erat maxume negotiosus: nemo
most-skillful (man) was most active: no-one

exercebat ingenium sine corpore: quisque
did exercise the understanding without the body: each

optumus malebat facere quam dicere;
(man) did rather-wish to do than to say [and to have];

sue benefacta landari ab allis, quam ipse narrare
his-own good-deeds to be praised by others, than he to relate

aliorum. Igitur boni mores
(those) to others. Therefore good manners (practices)

colebantur domi, que militiae
were celebrated [cultivated] at-home, and at-war (in the camp) 

concordia erst maxuma, avaritia minuma, jus
anaminity was very-great, (their) selfishness very-small, justice

que bonum valebat apud eos non magis legibus
and good did prevail among them not more by laws

quam natura. Exercebant jurgia,
than by nature. They did exercise (practise) contentions,

discordias, simultates cum hostibus; cives certabant
discorda, feuds with the enemies; citizens did vie

civibus de virtute. Erant
with citizens concerning virtue [in deeds of valor]. They were

magnifici in suppliciis deorum, parci
magnificent in (their) worships (worship) of the gods, frugal

domi, fideles in amicos. Curabant
of (at) home, faithful toward (their) friends. They did manage

que se que rempublicam his duabus artibus,
both themselves and the republic by these two arts

andacia in bello, aequitate, ubi pax
(practices), by boldness in by equity, when peace

avenerat. Quarum rerum ego habeo haec maxuma
had happened. Of which things I have these very-great

documenta, quid in bello vindicatum est
proofs, that in war it-was-vindicated (punishment was

saepias in eos, qui pugnaverant in hostem
visited) oftener on those, who had fought against the enemy

contra imperium, que qui revocati, 
contrary to command, and who having been recalled, had 

excesserant tardius praelio, quam 
departed more slowly (too slowly) from battle, than (on those) 

qui pusi-erant relinquere signa, aut 
who had-dared to leave-behind (their) standards, or having been 

pulsi cedere loco: vero agitabant 
repulsed to retire from place (their post): but they did conduct 

imperium in pace, magis beneficiis quam metu, 
the government in peace, rather by kindnesses than by fear, 

injuria accepta, malebant ignoscere 
an injury having been received, they did rather-wish to pardon 

quam persequi. Sed ubi respublica crevit labore
than to avenge. But when therepublic increased by industry

atque justitia magni reges domiti bello;
in justice, [when] great kings (were) conquered in war;

ferae nationes, et ingentes populi subacti
savaga nations, and great peoples (people) subdued

vi Carthego, aemula Romani imperii,
by force, [when] Carthage, the rival of the Roman empire,

interiit sb stirpe, cuncta
perished from (it's) stem, (was wholly destroyed), [then] all

maria que terrae patebant, fortuna caepit saevire
seas and lands did lie open, fortune began to rage

ac miscere omnia. Otium, divitiae,
and confound all (things). Peace, [repose] riches, (things)

optandae allis, fuere oneri que
to be wished to others, [for by some] were for a burden and

miserie iis, qui facile toleraverant dubias
wretchednees to those, who easily had endured doubtful (critical)

atque asperas res. Igitur prima cupido pecuniae,
and rough things. Therefore at first the desire of money,

dein imperii, crevit: ea fuere quasi materies
then of command, increased: those were as if the source

omnium malorum. Namque aviritia subvertit fidem,
of all evils. For avarice overtuned faith,

probitatem, que caeteras bonas artes; pro
honesty, and other good arts (qualities); instead-of

his edocuit superbiam crudelitatem, negligere
these it taught (them) pride, cruelty, to neglect

deos, habere omnia venalia; ambitio subegit
The gods, to have all things venal; ambition compelled

multos mortales fieri falsos; habere aliud
many mortals to be made (become) false; to have one

clausum in pectore, aliud promptum in
(thing) shut-up in the breast, another ready on (the)

lingua; aestumare amicitias que inimicitias non
tongue; to estimate friendship, and enmities not

ex re, sed ex commodo;
according to thing (moral worth), but according to advantage;

que habere bonum vultum magis quam
and to have a good (fair) countenance rather than (an honest)

ingenium. Haec primo crescere paulatim,
disposition. These at-fist (began) to increase by-degrees,

interdum vindicari. Post ubi contagio, quasi
sometimes to be punished. After wards when the contagion, as-if 

pestilentia invasit, civitas immutata:
a pestilence invaded (them), the state (was) changed:

imperium factum crudele que intolerandum,
the government (was) made cruel and intolerable,

ex justissimo que optumo. Sed primo ambitio
from the most just and the best. But at first ambition

exercebat animos hominum magis quam avaritia:
did exreise the minds of men more than avrice:

quod vitium tamen erat propius virtutem.
which vice [or ambition] however was nearer-to virtue.

Nam bonus ignavus aeque exoptant sibi
For the good (and) the indolent equally wish for themselves

gloriam, honorem, imperium, sed ille
glory, honour (preferment) authority, but he [the ambitious man]

nititur vera via;
(the former) endeavours (for them) in the true way [by

quia bonae artes desunt 
honorable means]; because good arts (qualities) are wanting to 

huic, contendit dolis atque 
this the latter), [avarice], he stives (for them) by deceits and 

fallaciis. Avaritia habet studium pecuniae, quam nemo
fallacies. Avarice has a zeal [and desire] of money, which no

sapiens concupivit. Ea, quasi imbuta malis
wise (man) has coveted. It, as if imbued with bad

venenis, effoeminat corpus que virilem animum: est
poisons, enervates the body and manly mind: it

semper infinita, insatiabilis: neque minuitur
always unbounded, insatiable: neither is [it] lessened

copia neque inopia. Sed postquam Lucius Sulla,
by plenty or by want. But after Lucius Sylla,

republica recepta; armis, habuit malos
the republic having been recovered by arms, had bad 

eventus ex bonis initiis; omnes rapere
results from good beginnings; all (began) to plunder

trahere: alius cupere domum, aliue
to draw (to take away): another (one) to covet a house, another

agros. Victores habere neque modum
lands. [That] the conquerors to have [had] neither manner 

neque modestiam: facere foeda que
nor modesty (moderation): to do [and did] disgraceful and

crudelia facinora in civis. Huc
cruel crimes against (their) fellow citizens. Hither

accedebat quod Lucius Sulla, contra
did come (to this was to be added), that Lucius Sylla, contrary to

morem majorum, habuerat exercitum,
the custom of (our) ansestors, had (treated) the army,

quem ductaveret in Asia, luxuriose que nimis
which he had often-led in Asia, intemperately and too

liberaliter, quo faceret fidum sibi.
liberally, in-order-that he might make (it) faithful to himself

Amoena, voluptaria loca facile molliverant ferocis
Pleasant, voluptuous places easily had enervated the fierce

(feroces) animos militum in otio. Ibi primum
minds of the soldiers in peace. There first

exercitus Romani populi insuevit amare,
the army of the Roman people became-accustomed to love,

potare, mirari signa, pictas tabulas,
to drink, to admire signs, (statues), painted tablets (pictures),

coelata vase; rapere ea privatim et publice,
carved vases; to plunder those (thinge) privately and publicly

spoliare delubra, polluere omnia sacra que
to rob shrines (temples), to pollute all (things) sacred and

profana. Igitur hi milites, postquam adepti-sunt
profane. Therefore these soldiers, after they obtained

victoriam, fecere nihil reliqui
a victory, made nothing of remaining (left nothing,

victis. Quippe secundae res fatigant
to the vanquished. For [indeed] prosperous things fatigue (try)

animos sapientium; ne illi temperarent
the minds of the wise; much less could they moderately enjoy

victoriae, moribus corruptis. Postquam
victory, (their) manners having been corrupted. After

divitiae caepere esse honori, et gloria,
riches began to be for honour (an honour), and glory,

imperium, potentia sequebatur eas: virtus coepit
authority, power did follow them: virtue began

hebescere, paupertas haberi probro,
to languish, poverty to be had (accounted) for a disgrace,

innocentia duci pro malevolentia Igitur ex
innocence to be deemed for ill-will. Therefore out of

divitiis, luxnria, atque avaritia, cum superbib,
riches, luxury, and avarice, with pride

invasere juventutem. Rapere, consumere,
invaded the yonth. (They began) to plunder, to consume,

pendere sus parvi, cupere aliena;
to esteem their-own (things) of little(value), to desire others;

habere pudorem, pudicitiam, divina atque humana
to have modesty, chastity, divine and human

promiscua, nihil pensi, neque
(things) promiscuous (undistinguished), nothing of regard, nor

of moderation. [They disregarded these, and acted without 

Est pretium operae quum 
restraint]. It is areward of labour (it is worth while), when

cognoveris domos atque villas
you shall have known (have viewed) houses and villas

exaedificatas in modum urbium, visere templa
built-up in the manner of cities, to visit the temples

deorum, quae nostri majores, religiosissimi mortales,
of the gods, which our ancestors, most-devout mortals.

fecere. Veram illi decorabant delubra deorum
made. But they did adorn the temples of the gods

pietete, suas domos gloria; neque eripiebant
with piety, their-own houses with glory; nor did they snatch

Quidquam victis paeter licentiam
any (thing) from the vanquished, except the privilege of (doing)

injuriae. At hi, contra ignavissimi homines,
injury. But these, on-the-other-hand, most-indolent men,

adimere, per summum scelus, onnia ea
(began) to take away, through the utmost wickedness, all those

sociis quae fortissimi viri victores
(things) from allies which the bravest men (who) conqueros

reliquerunt hostibus, proinde-quasi facere
left to (their) enemies, just-as-if to do

injuriam, id esset demum uti imperio.
an iqjllrJ, that might be at length (truly) to use authority.

Nam quid memorem ea, quae aunt credibilia
For why may I relate those(things), which are credible to

nemini, nisi his, qui videre; montes
no one, unless to those, who have seen (them); [that] mountains

esse subversos, maria constrata a
[have to be overturned, seas covered-over (built upon) by

compluribus privatis? Quibus divitiae videntur
many private (persons)? To whom riches appear

mihi fuisse ludibrio: quippe properabant abuti
to me to have been for mockery: for they did hasten to abuse

per turpitudinem, quas licebat habere
through baseness (the riches), which it was-lawful to have

honeste. Sed non minor lubido stupri, ganeae,
honourably. But no less a lust of impurity, debauchery,

que caeteri cultus, incesserat. Viri
and [of] other such habit, had invaded (them). Men (began)

pati muliebria: mulieres habere
to suffer (admit) womanish (practices): women to have

pudicitiam in propatulo: exquirere omnia
chastity in common: to search out all (things)

terra quo mari, causa vescendi, dormire priusquam
by land and by sea, for the sake of feeding, to sleep before that

cupido somni esset: non opperiri famem
inclination of sleep might be (to them): not to wait for hunger

aut sitim, neque frigus neque lassitudinem; sed
or thirst, neither cold nor lassitude; but

antocapere omnia ea luxu. Haec incendebant
to anticipate all those by lurury. These (things) did inflame

juventutem ad facinora, ubi familiares opes
the youth to crimes, when family (private) resources

defecorant. Animus imbutus malis artibus,
had failed (them). The mind imbued with bad arts (practices),

hand facile carebat lubidinibus: eo erat
not easily did refrain-from lusts: on this account it was

profusius deditus quaestui atque sumptui
the more lavishly addicted to acquisition and expenditure

omnibus modis.
in all manners.

In tanta que tam corrapta civitate, Catilina
It so great and so corrupted a state. Catiline

habebat, (id quod erat facillimum factu), catervas
did have, (that which was very easy to be done), troops

omnium flagitiosorum atque facinorosorum
of all wicked and desperate (fellows)

circum se, tanquam stipatorum. Nam quicumque
around himself, as if body guards. For whatsoever

impudicus. adulter, ganeo laceraverat
unchaste (person), adulterer, debauchee had squandered (his)

patria bona menu, ventre, pene; quique
paternal goods by hand, belly (luxory), lust; whosoever

conflaverat grande alienum aes,
had swelled up (contracted) a great other's brass (debt),

quo redimeret flagitium aut
by which he might redeem (purchase pardon for) wickedness or

facinus; paeterea omnes undique parricidae,
crime; besides all [from everywhere the] parricides,

sacrilegi convicti judiciis aut timentes
sacreligious (wretches) convicted in trials or fearing

juidicium pro factis; ad-hoc quos
trial for (their) deeds; to this (moreover) (those) whom

manus atque lingua alebat perjurio at civili
their) hand and tongue did support by perjury and civil

sanguine; postremo, omnes quos flagitium, egestas,
blood lastly, all whom villany, want,

conscius animus, exagitabat, hi erant proxumi que
a guilty mind, did harsss, these were the nearest and

familiares Catilinae. Quod si quis etiam vacuus
familiar to Catiline. But if anyone even (yet) free

a culpa, inciderat in amicitiem ejus, efficiebatur
from fault, had fallen into the friendsbip of him, he was made

facile par que similis caeteris quotidiano usu atque
easily equal and like to the rest by daily habit and

illecebris. Sed appetebat maxum familiaritates
allurements. But he sought after chiefy the intimacies

adolescentium: animi eorum molles et fluxi aetate,
of young-men: the minds of these soft and frail by age,

hand difficulter capiebantur dolis. Nam uti
not difficultly were taken (ensnared) by wiles. For as

studium cujusque flagrabat ex aetate
the inclination of each did glow from age, (he began)

praebere scorta, aliis, mercari canes atque
to afford harlots to others (some), to buy hounds and

equos allis: postremo, parcere neque sumptui
horses for others: finally, to spare neither expense

neque suae modestiae, dum faceret
aor his own modesty (character), provided he could make (them)

obnoxios que fidos sibi. Scio nonnullos fuisse,
subservient and faithful to himself. I know some to have been,

qui ita existumarent, juventutem, quae
who thus would think (thought), the youth, which

frequentabat domum Catilinae, habuisse pudicitiam
frequent the house of Catiline, to have had modesty

param honeste: sed haec fama valebat magis
little (not) honourably: but this report did prevail more

ex allis rebus, quam quod id foret compertum
from other things, than that it might be (it was) found-out

cuiquam. Jamprimum Catilina, adolescens,
(known) to anyone. First of all Catiline, a young man,

fecerat multa nefanda stupra cum nobili
had done (committed) many abominable impurities with a noble

virgine, cum sacerdote Vestae, et alia
virgin, with a priestess of Vesta, and other (things)

hujuscemodi, contra jus que fas: postrema,
of this kind, against human law and divine law: lastly,

captus amore Aureliae Orestillae, cujus bonus
taken with love of Aurelis Orestilla, of whom a good man 

unquam landavit nihil praeter formam; quod
ever praised nothing except (her) beauty; because

ea, timens privignum adulta aetate, dubitabat
she, fearing a stepson (of) mature age, did hesitate to 

nubere illi, creditur pro certo fecisse vacuam
marry to him, he is believed for certain to have made an empty

domum, necato filio, scelestis nuptiis. quae
house, [his son being killed], for the wicked nuptials. Which

res quidem videtur mihi in primis fuisse causa
thing indeed seems [to me] chiefly to have been the cause
of the enterprise to be hastened (hastening the conspiracy ). For

impurus animus, infestus diis que hominibus,
[his] impure mind, hostile to gods and to men,

poterat sedari neque vigiliis neque quietibus:
was able to be allayed neither by watchings nor by rests (rest):

concientia ita vexabat excitam mentem. Igitur
his conscience did harass (his) disturbed mind. Therefore

color ei, exsanguis, oculi foedi, incessus
complexion (was) to him pale, eyes foul, (his) gait

modo citus, mode tardus: vecordia inerat prorsus
now quick, nor slow: madness was-in throughout

in facia que vultu.
in (his) appearance end countenance. [His features indicated 
fury and malignity].

Sed edocebat juventutem mala
But he did teach the youth wicked

facinora, quam, ut diximus supra, illexerat: ex
crimes, which, as we have said above, be had allured: out of

illis commodare falsos testes que
them (he began) to accommodate (to furnish) false witnesses and

signatores; habere fidem,
signers (forgers); [and to instruct them] to have (bold) faith,

fortunas, pericula vilia. Post, ubi
fortunes, dangers (as) insignificant. Afterwards, when

attriverat famam atque pudorem eorum,
he had worn-away (ruined) the character and shame of them,

imperabat alia majora. Si caussa peccandi
he did enjoin other greater (crimes). If an opportunity of sinning

minnuss-suppetebat in praesens, nihilominus
did-not-offer for the present, nevertheless (he ordered

circumvenire, jugulare insontes sicuti sontes.
them) to beset, and to murder the innoceut as if guilty.

Scilicet, ne menus aut animus torpesceret per
Forsooth, lest the hand or mind might become sluggish through

otiam;erat malus atque crudelis potius gratuito.
disuse; hears bad and cruel rather gratuitously
(without a prupose )

Catilina confisus his amicis
Caliline having relied to (on) these friends

que sociis, simul quod alienum aes
and companions, at the same time because others' brass (debt),

erat ingens per omnis (omnes) terras;
was great through all lands (throughout the whole country);

et quod plerique Suilani milites,
and because [the greater part of ] the syllanian soldiers,

usi suo memores rapinarum et
having used their own too freely, mindful of rapines and

veteris victoriae, exoptabant civile bellum;
and of ancient victory, did eagerly wish for civil war;

cepit consilium reipublicae
he took design (entered into a design) of the republic

opprimundae. Nullus exercitus
to be oppressed (of oppressing the republic). No army (was)

in Italia: Cneius Pompeius gerebat bellum in
in Italy: Cneius Pompey did carry-on war in

extremis terris: magna spes ipsi petundi
remotest lands: a great hope (was) to him of seeking

consulatum; senatus sane intentus nihil:
the consulship; the senate indeed intent (on) nothing:

omnes res tutae que tranquillae: sed ea
all things were) safe and quiet: but those (things)

prorsus opportuna Catilinae. Igitur circiter
(were) altogether favourable to Catiline. Therefore about

Junias kalendas, Lucio Caesars et Caio
the Juniun kalends (first of June), Lucius Caesar and Caius

Figulo consulibus, primo appellare
Figulus (being) consuls, (he began) first to address

singulos, hortari alias, tentare alias;
single (persons individually), to exhort some, to try others;

docere suas opes, rempublicam
to teach (inform them of) his own resources, [that] the republic

imparatam, magna praemia conjurationis.
[was] unprepared, [and] the great rewards of the conspiracy.

Ubi quae voluit explorata-sunt satis,
When (matters) which he willed were considered suficiently,

convocat omnis (omnes) in unum, quibus
he convokes all into one (place), to whom

inerat maxuma necessitudo et
there was in (who had) the greatest obligation of necessity and

plurimum andaciae.
most of boldness. [Who rare the most needy and bold].

Eo convenere Senatorii ordinis, Publius
There assembled of the senatorian order, Publius

Lentulus Sura, Publius Autronius, Lucius Cassius
Lentulus Sura, Publius Autronius, Luctiur Cassius

Longinus, Caius Cethegus, Publius et Servius Sullae,
Longinus, Caius Cethegus, Publius and Servius Syllae,

filli Servii, Lucius Vargunteius, Quintus Annius,
sons of Servius, Lucius Vargunteius, Quintus Annius,

Marcus Porcius Laeca, Lucius Bestia, Quintus Curius:
Marcus Porcius Laeca, Lucius Bestia, Quintus Curius:

praeterea ex equestri ordine, Marcus Fulvius
moreover of the equestrian order, Marcus Fulvius

Nobilior, Lucius Statilius, Publius Gabinius Capito,
Nobilior, Lucius Statilius, Publius Gabinius Capito,

Caius Cornelius; ad hoc, multi ex coloniis,
Caius Cornelius; to this (besides), many out of the colonies,

et municipiis nobiles domi.
and municipal (towns) noble (men) at home. (There)

Erant praeterea complures paulo occultius
were moreover many somewhat more secretly

participes hujusce consilii, quos spes dominationis
partakers of this design, whom the hope of sway

hortabatur magis quam inopia aut alia necessitudo.
did encourage more than want or other obligation.

Caeterum pleraque juventus, sed maxume nobilium,
But mest of the youth, but chiefly of the nobles

favabat inceptis Catilinse. Quibus erat
did favour to the undertakings of Catiline. To whom (there) was
(they who had) 

copia vivere in otio vel magnifice,
the opportunity to live in peace either magnificently,

vel molliter, malebant incerta
or softly (indulgently), they had rather uncertain (things)

pro certis, bellum quam pacem. Fuere item
for certain. war than peace. (There) were likewise

eo tempestate, qui crederent Marcum
in that time (some), who would believe (did believe) Marcus

Licinium Crassum non fuisse Ignarum ejus
Licinus Crassus not to have been ignorant of that

consilii: quia Cneius Pompeius, invisus sibi,
design: because Cneius Pompey, odious to him,

ductabat magnum exercitum; voluisse
did often lead a great army; to have willed (that he wished)

opes cujusvis crescere contra potentiam illius:
the recources of anyone to increase against the power of him: at 

simul confisum, si conjuratio 
the same time having trusted, if the conspiracy might have 

valuisset se fore facile
prevailed (had prevailed), himself to be about to be easily
(that he would be) 

principem apud illos.
chief among them.

Sed antea item pauci conjuravere in quibus
But before also a few conspired in (amongst) whom

Catilina: de qua dicam quam
(was) Catiline: of which (conspiracy) I shall speak as

verissume potero. Lucio Tullo, Marco Lepido
most truly I shall be able, LuciusTullus, Marcus Lepidus 

consulibus, Publius Autronius, et Publius Sylla,
consuls, Publius Autronius, and Publius Sylla,

consules designati interrogati 
the consuls intended (elect) having been questioned (tried) by 

legibus ambitus, dederant poenas. 
the laws of bribery, had given (suffered) punishments. 

Paulo-post Catilina reus pecuniarum 
A little after Catiline guilty (accused) of moneys to be 

repetundarum erat-prohibitus petere
redemanded (of extortion) was prevented to seek

consulatum; quod nequiverit profiteri intra 
the consulate; because he had not-been-able to declare within
(enter his name as candidate) 

legitimos dies. Erat eodem tempore nobilis
the legitimate days. (There) was at the same time a noble

adolescens, Cneius Piso summae andaciae, egens,
young man, Cneius Piso, of the utmost boldness, needing,

Factiosus, quem inopia atque mali mores
whom want and bad morals (principles)

stimulabant ad rempublicam perturbandam.
did stimulate to the republic to be disturbed.
(to disturb the republic)

Consilio communicato, cum
(Their) design having been imparted (to each other), with

hoc, Catilina et Autronius, circiter nonas
this (youth), Catiline and Autronius, about the nones(the fifth)

Decembris, parabant interficere Lucium Cottam et
of December, did prepare to kill Lucius Cotta, and

Lucium Torquatum, consules, in capitolio, kalendis
Lucius Torquatus, the consuls, in the capitol, on the kalends

Januarii; ipsi, fascibus correptis,
(the first) of January; themselves, the fasces having been seized

mittere Pisonem cum exercitu ad
(by them), (prepared) to send Piso with an army to

duas Hispanias obtinendas.
the two spains to be possessed. 
(to take possession of the two Spains)

Ea re cognita, rursus transtulerunt
That thing having been known, again they transferred

consilium caedie in nonas
(deferred) (their) design of murder to the nones (the fifth)

Februarii. Jam, tum machinabantur perniciem
of February. Now, at that time they did plan destruction

non modo consulibus, sed plerisque senatoribus.
not only for the consuls, but most-of the senators.

Quod, pessimum facinus foret patratum eo die
But, the worst act would be committed on that day

post urbem Romam conditam,
since the city Rome having been built, 
[foundation of the city]

ni Catilina maturasset
unless Catiline might have hastened 
[had not Catiline been too hasty]

dare signum sociis pro curia. Quia
to give the signal to (his) companions before the senate-house. 

armati nondum-convenerant frequentes,
Because armed (men) had not yet assembled numerous (in numbers),

ea res diremit consilium. Postea Piso
that thing broke-off (their) design. Afterwards Piso

missus-est quaestor pro Praetore
was sent as treasurer for Pretor;
(with the authority of Pretor)

in citeriorem Hispaniam, Crasso adnitente;
to hither Spain, Crassus exerting 
(using his influence)

quod coanoverat eum infestum Cneio
because he had known him hostile to Cneius

Pompeio: tamen, senatus neque invitus dederat
Pompey: however, the senate neither reluctant had given

provincium: quippe
the province: [the senate willingly gave him the province] for

volebat foedum hominem abesse procul
it (they) did will a disgraceful man to be absent at a distance

a republica: simul quia complures boni
from the republic: at the same time because many good (men)

putabant praesidium in eo, et jam-tum potentia
did suppose a protection (to be) in him, and even then the power

Cneii Pompeii erat formidolosa. Sed is Piso, faciens
of Cneius Pompey was formidable. But that Piso, making

iter in provinciam occisus-eat ab
journey (on his march) into the province was killed by

Hispanis equitibus, quos ductabat in exercitu.
Spanish cavalry, whom he did lead often in (his) army.
[That he had in his army]

Sunt qui ita-dicant
(There) are (those) who thus may say (who say) [that]

barbaros nequivisse
the barbarians to have been unable [were unable]

pati injusta, superba, crudelia imperia
to endure the unjust (unreasonable), proud, cruel orders

ejus: autem alii illos equites, veteres que
of him: but others (say that) those horsemen, old and

fidos clientes Cneii Pompeii, aggressos
faithful dependants of Cneius Pompey, having attacked 

Pisonem voluntate ejus: praeterea Hispanos
Piso by the will of him (Pompey): moreover the spaniards

nunquam fecisse tale facinus, sed antea
never to have done (did) such a crime, but before-this

perpeseos multa saeva imperia. Nos relinquimus
having endured many harsh commands. We leave

eam rem in medio Dictum
that thing in the middle (undetermined). (It has been) said

satis de superiori
sufficiently (sufficient has been said) concerning the former


Catilina, ubi videt eos, quos memoravi ante
Catiline, when he sees those, whom I have mentioned before,

convenisse, tametsi saepe-egerat multa
to have assembled, although he had-often-transacted many 

cum singulis, tamen credens fore in
with each (of them), yet believing to be about to be to

rem appellare et cohortari universos
the thing (purpose) to address and encourage all,

secessit in abditam partem aedium;
retired into a secret part of the house

atque, omnibus arbitris amotis procul,
and, all witnesses removed at a distance,

habuit ibi orationem hujuscemodi:
had (delivered) there a speech of this kind:

Ni vestra virtus que fides foret satis
Unless your valour and faith might be (were) sufficiently

spectata mihi, opportuna res
Beheld (tried) to (by) me, (this) favourable thing

cecidisset nequicquam: magna spes
would have happened to no purpose: [the] great hope

dominationis fuisset frustra in manibus:
of ascendency would have been in vain in (your) hands:

neque captarem incerta pro certis,
neither would I grasp at uncertain (things) instead of certain,

per ignaviam ant vana ingenia. Sed quia
indolence or fickle dispositions. But because

cognovi vos fortes que fidos mihi, multis et
I have experienced you brave and faithful to me, on many and

magnis tempestatibus eb animus ausus-est
great occasions; on that account (my) mind has dared

incipere maxumum atque pulcherrumum
to begin (undertake) the greatest and most-glorious

facinus; simul quia intellexi eadem
enterprise; at the same time because I perceived the same 

esse bona que mala. vobis, quae mihi. Nam,
to be good and bad to you, which (are so) to me. For,

velle idem, atque nolle idem, ea est demum
to will the same, and not to will the same, this is finnally

firma amicitia. Sed omnes jam-antea diversi
firm friendship. But (you) all already different

andistis, quae ego agitavi
have heard (the things) which I have agitated in (my)

mente. Caeterum animus accenditur magis in dies,
mind. But (my) mind is inflamed more on days (daily)

cum considero quae sit futura conditio
(daily), when I consider what may be the future condition

vitae, nisi vindicamus nosmetipsos
of (our) life, unless we vindicate ourselves (assert our rights)

in libertatem. Nam, postquam respublica concessit
to liberty. For, after the republic yielded

in jus atque ditionem paucorum potentium,
into the rule and authority of a few powerful (persons),

reges, tetrarchae esse semper vectigales illis:
Irinys, [and] tetrarchs (began) to be always tributary to them:

populi, nationes pendere stipendia:
peoples (people), [and] nations to pay taxes: [to them] (we)

omnes caeteri strenui, boni, nobiles atque ignobiles
all the rest strenuous, good, noble and ignoble

fuimus vulgus, sine gratia, sine auctoritate,
have been a rabble, without favour (interest), without authority,

obnoxii his quibus, si respublica valeret,
subservient to those to whom, if the republic might prevail,

essemus formidini. Itaque omnis gratia,
we should be for a terror. Therefore all interest,

potentia, honos, divitiae sunt apud illos, ant ubi
power, honour, riches are at (with) them, or where

volunt: reliquerunt nobis pericula, repulsas, judicia,
they will: they have left to us dangers, repulses, trials,

egestatem. Quae quousque-tandem, fortissimi
want. Which (things) how long, bravest

viri petiemini? Nonne-paestat emori per
men, will you endure? Is it not better to die by

virtutem, quam amittere miseram atque inhonestam
valour, then to lose a wretched and dishonourable

vitam per dedecus, ubi fueris
life by disgrace, when you may have been 

ludibrio alienae superbiae? Verum
the laughing-stock to strange (another's) pride? But

enimvero, pro fidem deum atque hominum, victoria
truely, Before the faith of gods and of men, victory

est nobis in manu; aetas viget,
is to us in hand, [in our possession] (our) age flourishes, (our)

animus valet: contra omnia consenuerunt
mind prevails: on the other hand all (things) have grown old

illis annis atque divitiis. Est opus tantummodo
to them in years and riches. (There) is need only

incepto, res expediet caetera.
for a beginning, thing (the matter itself) will prepare the rest

Etenim quis mortalium, cui est virile
For who of mortals, to whom (there) is a manly

ingenium, potest tolerare divitias superare illis,
disposition, can endure riches to abound to them,
[them to abound in riches]

quas profundunt in exstruendo
which they squander in building

mari, et montibus coaequandis,
(narrowing) the sea, and mountains to be levelled 
(in levelling mountains)

familiarem rem deesse nobie etiam
private thing (property) to be wanting to us even

ad necessaria.
to (for) necessary. (matters)
[While we want the necessaries of life].

Illos continnare binas domos ant
Those who can endure to extend two (united) houses or

amplius: ullum familiarem larem
more [in one]: any private household god (abode)

nusquam nobis ?
no where to us? [While we have no where a home of our own].

Cum emunt tabulas, signa, toreumata diruunt
When they buy pictures, statues, chased-vessels, pull-down

nova, aedificant alia: postremo, trahunt,
new (buildings), build others: finally, they draw (consume)

vexant pecuniam omnibus modis; tamen
torture money [squander money] in all manners; yet

nequeunt vincere suas divitias summa lubidine.
are-unable to exceed their riches by the utmost extravagance.
(of expenditure)

At inopia est nobis domi, alienum-aes
But want is to us at home, debt

foris, res mala, spes multo asperior.
abroad, thing (our situation) bad, hope by much rougher(worse)

Denique, quid reliqui habemus
Finally, what of remaining have-we (what have we left)

praeter miseram animam? Quin igitur
except a wretched life? But therefore

expergiscimini? En! illa, illa libertas, quam
do you awake? so! that, that liberty, which

optastis saepe; paeterea divitiae, decus, gloria,
you have wished for often; besides riches, honour, glory

sita-sunt in oculis: fortuna posuit omnia ea
are placed in eyes (view): fortune has placed all those (as)

praemia victoribus. Res, tempus,
rewards to the conquerors. The thing (circumstanee), time,

pericula, egestas, magnifica spolia belli hortentur
dangers, want, the magnificent spoils of war may exhort

vos magis quam mea oratio. Utemini me vel
you more than my speech. You shall use me either (as)

imperatore vel milite: neque animus neque
general or (fellow) soldier: neither (my) mind nor

corpus aberit a vobis. Consul agam, ut
body shall be absent from you. (As) consul I shall do, as

spero, haec ipsa una, vobiscum: nisi forte
I hope, those very (things) together with you: unless by chance

animus fallit me, et vos parati-estis
my) mind deceive me, and you have been prepared (disposed)

servire magis quam imperare.
to serve rather than to commmd.

Postquam homines eccepere ea,
After the men received (heard) those (things)

quibus omnia mala erant abunde, sed neque res
to whom all evils were abundantly, but neither thing

neque ulla bona spes: tametsi videbatur
(property) nor any good hope: although it did seem

illis magna merces movere quieta; tamen
to them a great reward to move quiet (things); notwithstanding

plerique postulare uti proponeret, quae
many (began) to require that he would propose, what

foret conditio belli: quae praemia peterent
would be the condition of war: what rewards they might seek

armis: quid que ubi opis ant spei haberent.
by arms: what and where of resource or hope they might have.

Tum Catilina polliceri novas tabulas
Then Catiline (began) to promise new tablets 
(a remission of debts)

proscriptionem locupletium, magistratus,
a proscription of the wealthy, magistrates,

sacerdotia, rapines, omnia alia quae bellum
priesthoods, rapines, all other(things) which war

atque lubido victorum fert: praeterea,
and [the] lust of conquerors bears (brings): moreover,

Pisonem esse in citeriore Hispania, Publium
[that] Piso to be (was) in hither Spain, Publius

Sittium Nucerinum cum exercitu in Mauritania,
Sittius Nucerinus with an army in Mauritania,

participes sui consilii: Caium Antonium
partakers of his design: [that] Caius Antony

petere consulatum, quem speraret
to seek [sought] the consulship, whom he would hope 
(he hoped)

fore collegium sibi, hominem et
to be-about to be [would be a] colleague to himself, a man and

familiarem et circumventum omnibus
(both) familiar and beset by all

[his familiar acquaintance, and under many obligations to him]

se consulem facturum
himself (Catiline) consul about to make (would make)

initium agendi cum eo. Ad-hoc increpabat
a beginning of acting with him. Besides he did revile

maledictis omnea bonos: nominans
[with imprecations] all good (men): naming

unumquemque suorum, landare, admonere
each of his own, (he began) to praise (him), to remind

alium egestatis, alium sue cupiditatis,
one of (his) poverty, another of his desire

complures periculi aut ignominiae, multos Sullana
many of danger or disgrace, many of the Syllanian

victoriae, quibus ea fuerat praedae. Postquam
of victory, to whom that had been for booty. After

videt animos omnium alacris; (alacres) cohortatus,
he sees the minds of all cheerful; having exhorted

ut haberent suam petitionem
(them ), that they would have his petition (canvass)

for a concern, 
[that they would exert themselves in his canvass for the consulship]

dimisit conventum. Fuere ea tempestate,
he dismissed the assembly. There had been at that time,

qui dicerent Catilinam, oratione
(those) who might say (said) [that] Catiline, the speech

habita, circumtulisse in pateris
having been delivered, to have carried-about in goblets
[carried about]

sanguinem humani corporis, permixtum vine cum
the blood of a human body, [mingled with wine] when

adigeret populares sui sceleris ad
he would force the accomplices of his wickedness to

jusjurandum; inde cum omnes degustavissent
an oath; then when all might have tasted (had tasted)

post exsecrationem, sicuti consuevit fieri in
after the execration (oath), as has been wont to be done in

solemnibus sacris, aperuisse suum consilium;
solemn sacred-rites, to have disclosed [his] design;

atque dictitare fecisse
and to say-frequently [that they frequently said] to have done
(that he did it)

eo, quo forent magis
for this purpose, in order that they might be more

fidi inter se, conscii alius alii 
faithful among themselves, (being) conscious one to another of 

tanti facinoris. Nonnulli existumabant et haec,
so-great a crime. Some did think and (both) these (things),

et multa praeterea ficte ab iis, qui credebant
and many besides feigned by those, who did believe

invidiam Ciceronis. quae postea
the envy (hatred) of (against) Cicero, which afterwards

orta-est, leniri atrocitate sceleris 
arose, to be assuaged by the heinousness of the wickedness of 

eorum, qui dederant poenas. Ea res 
those, who had given (suffered) punishments. That thing has 

comperta-est nobis parum pro
been found-out [to us] little (insufficiently) for 
(in proportion to its)

[The proof seems not to us andcient to decide in so weighty an accusation]

Sed Quintus Curius fuit in ea;
But Quintus Curius was in that

conjuratione, natus hand obscuro loco,
conspiracy, born not in obscure place, (honourably decended)

coopertus flagitiis aqtque facinoribus; quem
overwhelmed with villanies and crimes; whom

censores amoverant senatu gratia probri.
the censors had expelled from the senate on-account of disgrace.

Non minor vanitas quam andacia
No less vanity [and indiscretion] than boldness

inerat huic homini: neque reticere
was in [appertained] to this man: [nor] to keep secret
[could he keep secret]

quae ipse andierat, neque
what (things) he had heard, nor

occultare suamet scelera.; prorsus
to conceal [nor could he conceal] his own crimes; nor in short 

habebat quiequam pensi neque dicere neque facere.
he cared not what he said or did.

Vetus consuetudo stupri erat ei cum Fulvia, 
An old habit of intrigue was to him with Fulvia,

nobili muliere, cui cum esset minus 
a noble woman, to whom when he might be (he was) less

gratus, quod minus-poterat
agreeable, because he was less able

largiri inopia, repente glorians, polliceri 
to bestow from poverty, suddenly 	boasting, (he began) to promise 

maria que montes, 		interdum 
seas and mountains, 	(to make great promises), 	sometimes 

	minari 	ferro 	ni 	foret 	obnoxia 
	to threaten 	with iron (the sword), unless she would-be compliant 

sibi: postremo, agitare ferocius quam solitus-erat. 
To him: In-fine, to-set more-rudely than be had been-wont. 

At Fulvia, causa insolentiae Curii 	cognita, 
But Fulvia, the cause of the rudeness of Curius having been known, 

habuit non occultum tale periculum reipublicae: sed 
kept not 	secret 	such 	danger to the republic, but 

auctore 	sublato, 		narravit compluribus quae, 
the author having been suppressed, related 		to many what, 
	quo 	modo, 	andierat 	de 	conjuratione 
(and) in what 	manner, 	she had heard of 	the conspiracy 

Catilinae. Ea res imprimis accendit studia. 
of Catiline. That thing chiefly kindled the zeals (zeal) 

hominum ad consulatum manda.ndum Marco Tullio 
	of men 	to the consulship to-be-committed to Marcus Tullius 

	Ciceroni. 		Namque antea 
Cicero. 	[To elect Cicero to the consulship]. 	For before
pleraque nobilitas aestuabat invidia, et credebat 
most-of the nobility did boil with envy, and did believe 

consulatnm quasi pollui, si novus homo 
the consulship 	as-it to be defiled, it a new man (a persen not 

	adeptus-foret 	eum. Sed ubi periculum 
noble] should have obtained 	it. 	But 	when danger 

advenit, invidia atque superbia post-fuere. 
approached, 	envy 	and pride 	were postponed (of secondary 

	Igitur 	comitiis 	habitis, 	Marcus 
consideration). Therefore 	elections having-been-held, 	Marcus 

Tullius et Caius Antonius declarantur consules. 
Tullius 	and 	Caiua Antony 	are declared 	consuls, 

Quod 	factum 	primo concusserat 	populares 
Which 	deed 	first 	had shaken 	the accomplices 

conjurationis. 	Tamen 	furor 	Catilinae neque 
of the cospiracy. 	However 	the rage 	of Catiline 	neither 

minuebatur; sed agitare plura in-dies ; 
was diminished; but (he begau) to agitate more (things every day; 

parare arma opportunis locis per Italiam; 
to prepare 	arms 	in convenient 	places through 	Italy; 

portare mutuam pecuniam sumptam 	sua 	aut 
to convey borrowed money taken 	on his-own 	or 

fide amicorum, Faesulas, ad quemdam Manlium; 
the credit of friends, 	to Faesulae, to 	a certain 	Manlium; 

qui postea fuit princeps belli faciundi. 
who afterwards was chief 	of the war to-be-made (of making war).

Dicitur ea tempestate adscivisse plurimos 
He is said at that time to have attached very-many 

homines cujuscunque generis sibi; etiam aliquot 
men of every kind 	to himself; also some 

mulieres, quae primo toleraverant ingentis (ingentes) 
women, 	who 	first 	had supported 	great 

sumptus stupro corporis; post ubi aetas fecerat
expenses by prostitution of body; afterwards when age had made 

modum tantummodo quaestui, neque lumriae, 
a bound 	only 	to gain, 	and-not 	to luxury, 

	conflaverant 		grande 	alienum-aes. Catilina 
	they had contracted 	a great 	debt. Catiline 

credebat se posse per eas solicitare urbana 
did believe himself to be able through these to stir-up city 

	servitia 	incendere urbem, vel adjungere 
	slaveries (slaves) 	to burn the city, or to attack [them] 

sibi, vel interficere viros earum. Sed in his 
to him, or to murder the husbands of them. But among these 

erat Sempronia, quae saepe commiserat multa faoinora. 
was Sempronia, who often bad committed many acts 

virilis andaciae. Haec mulier fuit satis fortunata 
of manly boldness, This woman was sufficiently happy 

genere atque forma, praeterea viro et liberis: 
in lineage and beauty, moreover in a husband and children 

docta Graecis et Latinis literis: psallere, 
	learned in Greek and 	Latin letters (literature): to sing, 

	saltare 		elegantius quam est 
 dance [she could sing and dance more-gracefu1ly than is 

necesse probae : multa ilia quae 
necessary for a chaste (lady): (she knew) many other (things) which

sunt instrumenta luxuriae: sed omnia. 
are instrumenta of luxury: but all (things were) 

semper cariora ei quam fuit decus atque pudicitia. 
always dearer to her than was honour and chastity. 

	Discerneres 	hand facile an 	parceret minus 
You could not determine easily, whether she could spare less 

pecuniae an famae ; sic accensa. lubidine ut 
to money 	or 	character; 	so 	inflamed with lust 	that 

peteret viros saepius quam peteretur. 
she would seek men oftener than she would be sought (by them). 

Sed ea saepe antehac prodiderat fidem, abjuraverat 
But she often before-this had betrayed faith, 	had forsworn 

creditum, fuerat conscia 	caedis, 	abierat 
credit 	(trust), had been 	guilty of murder, 	had gone 

praeceps 	luxuria atque inopia, Verum 
headlong [into ruin] 	by luxury and 	by want. But 

	ingenium 	eius 	hand absurdum: 
the understaoding of her (was) not foolish 	(despicable): 

posse facere versus, movere jocum ; 
to be-able [she could] to make verses, to move (excite) jest; 

uti vel modesto, vel molli, vel procaci sermone. 
to use either modest, or delicate, or wanton discourse 

Prorsus, multae facetiae que multus lepos inerat 
Altogether, many pleasantries and 	much wit was-in her.

His rebus comparatis, Catilina nihilominus 
Those things having been provided, Catiline nevertheless 

petebat consulatum in proxumum annum; sperans, 
	did seek the consulship for the next year; 	hoping, 

	si foret designatus, 	se 	usurum facile 
if he might be elected, [that] himself about-to-use easily 

	Antonio 	ex 	voluntate. 
(would easily manage) Antony according-to (his) will 

Neque interea erat quietus, sed parabat insidias 
Neither mean-time was-he quiet, but did prepare snares 

Ciceroni omnibus modis. Tamen, dolus aut astutiae 
for Cicen in all manners, 	However, craft or wiles 

neque-deerant 	illi 	ad-cavendum. Namque 	a 
were-not-wanting 	to him 	to-beware. 	For 	from 

principio sui consulatus, effecerat, 	pollicendo 
the beginning of his consulship, 	he had effected, by promising 

multa per Fulviam, ut Quintus Curius, de 
many (things) through Fulvia, that Quintus CUriUI, of 

quo memoravi paulo ante, proderet consilia 
whom I have recorded (spoken) a little before, might betray the designs

Catilinae sibi. Ad-hoc perpulerat suum collegam 
of Catiline to him. Besides he had forced his colleague 

Antonium 	pactione 		provinciae, 
Antony 	by the agreement [promise] of a province, 

	ne-sentiret 	contra rempublicam: 
that he would not-feel (entertain ill-will) against the republic: 

habebat occulte praesidia amicorum atque clientium 
he did have secretly guards of friends and dependants

circum se. 	Postquam dies comitiorum venit, et 
about himself. 	When the day of electlons came, and 

neque petitio Catilinae, neque insidiae quas fecerat 
neither the suit or Catiline, nor the snares which he had made 

consuli cessere prospere, constituit facere bellum 
for the consul resulted favourably, he resolved to make 	war 

et experiri omnia extrema, 	quoniam, quae 
and to try all extreme (things), 	since, what (things) 

tentaverat occulte, evenerant aspera que oeds, 
be had tried 	secretly, had happened rough and disgraceful. 

Igitur dimisit 	Caium Manlium Faesulas, 
therefore he dismissed (sent) 	Caius Manlius (to) Faesulae, 

atque in eam partem Etruriae, quemdam Septimium, 
and to that part or Etruria, a certain Septimius, 

Camertem in Picenum agrum, Caium Julium in 
a Camertian to the Picene land, Caius Julius to 

Apuliam, praeterea alium 	alio, 	quem que ubi 
Apulia, 	moreover another to-another-place, whom and where 

credebat 	fore opportunum sibi. Interea 
he did believe to-be-about-to-be 	suitable to himself. Mean-time 

	moliri multa. 	Romre 	simul: 
(he began) to contrive many (things) at Rome at-the-same-time 

tendere insidias 	consuli; parare incendia; 
to lay snares 	for the consul; to prepare 	burnings; 

obsidere opportuna loca armatis 	hominibus : 
to block-up 	convinent 	places 	with armed 	men: 

ipse esse cum telo, item jubere alios, 
himself to be with a weapon, also to order others, [he himself was 

	hortari uti 	essent 
armed, and ordered others to be so, to exhort that they might be 

semper intenti que parati; festinare dies que 
always 	intent 	and 	prepared; to hasten days and 

noctes; 					vigilare; 
nights ] 	[he was actively employed day and night); 	to watch; 

	fatigari 	neque 	insomniis (pl.) neque labore. 
to be fatigued neither 	by-want-of-sleep 	nor 	by labour. 

Postremo, ubi nihil procedit 	agitanti multa, 
Finally, when nothing suceeds [with him) projecting many 

	rursus 	convocat 	principes 	conjurationis 
(things), again 	he assembles 	the chiefs 	of the conspiracy 

intempesta nocte, per Marcum Porcium Laecam, 
in untimely 	night, through 	Marcus Porcius Laeca, 

que ibi 	questus multa 	de ignavia eorum, 
and there having complained many (much) of the indolence of them, 

	docet 	se 	praemisisse 	Manlium 
he informs (them) himself to-have-sent-before (despatched) Manliu. 

ad eam multitudinem, quam paraverat ad arma 
to that 	multitude, 	which he had prepared to arms

capiunda; 		item alios in alia opportuna 
to-be-taken (to take arms); also others to other convenient 

loca, qui facerent initium belli; que se
places, who might make (to make) a beginning of war; and himself 

cupere 	proficisci ad exercitum, si 
to desire [that be desired] to-set-out to 	the army, if he might 

oppressisset Ciceronem prius: eum 
have (had) 	destroyed 	Cicero 	before: 	him (Cicero) 

officere multum suis consiliis. 
to obstruct much to his designs. [If he could destroy Cicero before 

he departed, as Cicero obstructed him much in his desigs] Therefore, 

caeteris perterritis ac dubitantibus, Caius 
the rest 	having been affrightened 	and 	hesitating, 	Caius 

Cornelius, Romanus eques, pollicitus suam operam,
Cornelius, 	a Roman knight, having promised [his) assistance, 

et cum 	eo Lucius Vargunteius, senator, 
and 	with him Lueius Vargunteius, 	a senator, [they) 

constituere ea. nocte paulo post, introire cum 
appointed on that night a little after, 	to go-in with 

armatis hominibus ad Ciceronem, sicuti salutatum, 
	armed 	men to 	Cicero, 	as [if] to salute 

		et confodere de-improviso 		imparatum, 
[him], and 	to stab 	on-a-sudden 	(him) 	unprepared, 

	suae 	domi. Curius, ubi 	intelligit quantum 
at his-own 	house. Ourius, 	when he understands how-great 

periculum impendeat consuli, propere enunciat 
danger may depend (impends) to the coosul, hastily declares 

Ciceroni per Fulviam, dolum qui parabatur. Ita 
to Cicero 	through 	Fulvia, the plot which was prepared. Thus 

illi prohibiti janua, susceperant tantum 
they having been prohbited from the gate, had-undertaken so-great 

facinus frustra. Interea Manlius 	solicitare 
a crime in-vain, 	Mean-time 	Manlius (began) 	to solicit 

	plebem 	in Etruria, cupidam 
(excite to insurrection) the commonalty in Etruria, 	desirous 

novarum rerum simul egestate, ac 
	of new 	things (a revolution) at-the-same-time from want, and 

	dolore injuriae: quod 	amiserat 
resentment of injury: because (the common people) had lost (their) 

agros que omnia bona dominatione Sullae; 
lands and 	all (their) goods by the usurpation or Sylla; 

praeterea latrones cujuscunque generis, quorum 
moreover 	robbera 	of every kind, 	or whom 

magna copia 		erat in ea regione, 	nonnullos 
a great plenty (number) was in that region, [also] some 

ex Sullanis colonis, quibus lubido atque luxuria 
of the Syllanian colonists, to whom lust and luxury 

fecerant nihil reliqui ex magnis rapinis. 
made nothing, remaining (left nothing) out-of great plunders. 

Cum ea nunciarentur Ciceroni, permotus 
When those (things) might be (were) told to Cicero, much-disturbed 

ancipiti malo, quod neque-poterat longius tueri 
by the double evil, because he was-not-able longer 	to protect 

urbem ab 	insidiis 	privato 	consilio, 
the city 	from stratagems by private contrivance, [vigilance], 

neque habebat satis compertum quantus exercitus 
neither 	had he sufficiently found-out how-great the army 

Malllii foret, 	aut quo consilio; 
of Manlius might-be (was), or with what design; [what was its design]

refert rem ad senatum, exagitatam 
he refers the matter to the senate, 	harassed (canvassed) 

jam antea rumoribus vulgi. 	Itaque senatus 
even betore by the rumours of the mob, 	Therefore the senate 

decrevit quod solet plerumque in atroci negotio,
decreed what is-wont generalIy in [an atrocious] business, 

consules darent operam,
[in a dangerous emergency], (that) the consuls should give exertion, 

ne 	respublica 	caperet 	quid detrimenti. Ea 
lest 	the republic 	should take 	any 	of injury. 	That 

maxuma potestas permittitur 		magistratui 
very-great power is allowed to a (supreme) magistrate 

per senatum, Romano more, parare exercitum, 
by 	the senate, by Roman custom, to prepare 	an army, 

gerere bellum, coercere socios atque cives omnibus 
to carry-on war, 	to coerce allies and citizens in all 

modis: habere summum imperium atque judicium 
manners to have the chief government 	and 	judgment 

	domi que militiae. Aliter 	jus earum 
(civil rule) at-home and abroad, Otherwise privilege of those 

rerum est nulli consuli 	sine jusu populi. 
things is to no consul 	without command of the people, 

Post paucos dies, Lucius Senius, senator, recitabat 
After a few 	days, Lueius Seniua, a senator, did read-aloud 

in senatu literas 	quas dicebat 
in the senate, letters (a letter), which he did say (to have been) 

allatas sibi Faesulis, in quibus erat scriptum, 
brought to him from Faenlae, in which was	written, 	[that] 

Caium Manlium cepisse 	arma eum magna 
Caius Manlius to have taken [had taken] arms with a great 

multitudine 	ante sextam 	diem kalendarum 
multitude before 	the sixth day of the calends 

Novembris. 		Simul 		id quod solet 
November (27th Ootober). At-the-same-time that which usual 

in tali re, alii nunciabant portenta atque 
in such thing (a case), some did announce omens 	and 

prodigia; alii conventus fieri, 	arma 	portari, 
prodigies others assemblies to be made (held), arms to be conveyed, 

servile bellum moveri Capuae atque in Apulia. 
a servile war 	to be excited at Capua and in Apnlia. 

Igitur 	decreto senati, missi Quintus Marcius 
Therefore by a decree of the senate, were sent Quintus Marcius 

Rex Faesulas; Q. Metellus Creticus in Apuliam 
Rex to Faesulae; Quintiue Metellus Creticus into Apulia 

que ea loca circum. Hi utrique erant imperatores 
and those places around. These both were 	generals

ad 	urbem; impediti ne triumpharent calumnia 
to (near) the ciy; prevented lest they might triumph by the calumny 

or a few, [both these were generals, without the walls of the city, prevented 

by the calumnies of a few, from having their triumph], to whom 

mos erat vendere omnia, honesta atque 
custom 	was to  sell all (things), honourable and 

inhonesta. Sed praetores 	Quintus Pompeius 
dishonourable. But the pretors (were sent) 	Quintus Pempeius 

Rufus Capuam, Quintus Metenus Celer in Picenum 
Rufus to Capua, 	Quintus Metellus Celer to the Picene 

agrum: que 	permissum his, uti compararent 
land: and (it was) allowed to these, that they might levy 

exercitum pro tempore atque periculo. Ad-hoc 
	an army 	aocording-to 	time 	and 	danger. 	Beaides 

		si quis 		indicasset 		de 
[they decreed) if any-one should have informed (had informed) of 

conjuratione quae facta-erat contra rempublicam. 
the conlpiracy which was made against 	the republic, 

praemium, 	libertatem servo, et 	H. S. C. 
a reward, (viz.) 	freedom to a slave, and a hundred-thousand 

(centum sestertia); libero impunitatem ejus rei 
	sesterces; 	to a free-man impunity of that thiug 

et H. S. C. C. 	(ducenta sestertia); que item 
and 	two-hundred-thousand sesterces and also 

decrevere, uti gladiatoriae familiae distribuerentur 
they decreed, that the gladiator families should be distributed 

Capuam, et in caetera municipia, 	pro 
to Capua, and into other municipal towns, according-to 

	opibus 		cujusque; 	vigiliae 	haberentur 
the resources (strength) 	of each; 	watches 	should be kept 

per totam urbem Romae, que 	minores 
throughout the whole city of Rome, and the inferior 

magistratus praeessent 	eis. Quibus rebus civitas 
magistrates should preside-over them. By which things the state 

erat permota atque facies urbis 	immutata: 
was disturhed and the appearance or the city changed : 

tristitia repente invasit omnis (omnes) ex summa 
sadness 	suddenly invaded all after the utmost 

laetitia 	atque lascivia, 	quae 	diuturna quies 
rejoicing 	and 	sportiveness, which a long peace 

pepererat. 		Festinare, trepidare, neque 
had produced. 	(they began) to hasten, to tremble, neither 

satis credere cuiquam loco neque homini: neque 
sufficiently to trust to any place nor man: 	neither 

gerere 	bellum, neque habere pacem: quisque 
to carry-on 	War, 	nor 	to have 	peace: 	every-one 

metiri 	pericula 	suo 	metu. Ad-hoc mulieres, 
to measure dangers by his-own fear. 	Besides the women, 

quibus pro magnitudine reipublicae insolitus timor 
to whom [for the greatness of the republic] an uuusual fear 

belli incesserat, afflictare sese; tendere 
of war had attacked, (began) to afflict themselves] to stretch 

supplices manus ad coelum; misereri parvos 
suppliant, hands to heaven; to compassionate (their) little 

liberos; rogitare; pavere omnia, superbia 
children; to ask-frequently; to dread all (things), pride 

atque deliciis omissis, diffidere sibi que 
and 	refinements being left-aside, to distrust for themselves and 

patriae. 	At crudelis animus 
country. [they distrusted every thing]. 	But the cruel mind 

Catilinae movebat illa eadem, 	tametsi praesidia 
of Catiline did project those same (things), although guards

parabantur, et ipse 	interrogatus-erat ab Lucio 
were prepared, and himself had been impeached by Lucio. 

Paulus Plautia lege: postremo, venit in senatum,
Paulus (on) the Plautian law: lastly, he came into the senate, 

causa    dissimulandi, et quasi 	sui 
by cause (for the sake) of dissembling, and as-it-were of-himself 

expurgandi; 	sicuti lacessitus-foret 
to be-cleared (clearing himself); as-though be might be provoked (was  

jurgio. Tum Marcus Tullius consul, sive timens 
provoked) by defamation. then Marcus Tullins the consul, either fearing 

praesentiam ejus sive commotus ira, habuit 
the presence of him or being excited by anger, had (delivered) 

orationem luculentam atque utilem reipublicae, quam 
a speech brilliant and useful to the republic, which 

postea 	edidit scriptam. Sed ubi ille assedit, 
afterwards he published written. But when he sat-down, 

Catilina, ut paratus-erat ad omnia dissimulanda 
Catiline, as he had been prepared for all (things) to-be-dissembled 

	demisso 	vultu 	que 
(to dissemble all things) (began) with down-cast countenance and 

supplici voce postulare a Patribus 
suppliant voice to request from the Fathers (senate) (that) 

	ne-crederent temere quid 	de 	se ; 
they might not believe rashly 	any (thing) 	concerning him; 

	ortum 	ea 	familia, ita instituisse 
(being) sprung from that (such) family, so to have regulated (his) 

vitam ab adolescentia, ut haberet omnia bona 
life from adolescence, that he might have 	all good 

in spe: ne-existumarent opus esse sibi, 
(things) in hope: 	they should not-think need to be to him, 

patricio homini, beneficia cujus ipsius atque 
a patrician man, 	the favors or whom 	self 	and (his) 

majorum essent plurima 	in 	Romanam 
ancestors might be (were) 	very-many toward the Roman 

plebem, 	republica perdita; 
commons, (of) the republic destroyed (of destroying the republic), 

cum Marcus Tullius, inquilinus civis Romae, 
when Marcus Tullius, an alien (adventitious) citizen of Roma, 

	servaret eam. 	Ad-huc, cum adderet alia 
would preserve it. 	Moreover, when he would add other 

	maledicta; omnes 	obstrepere, vocare hostem 
reviling.; and began) to interrupt, to call (him) an enemy 

atque parricidam. 	Tum ille furibundus, inquit, 
and parricide.    Then he raging, says,

"Quoniam quidem circumventus 	agor praeceps 
"Since indeed beset I am driven headlong 

ab inimicis, extinguam meum incendium 
by (my) enemies, I wlll extinguish my burning [destruction] 

ruina."  Dein proripuit se domum ex 
by (univeral) ruin," Then he hurried himself home out-of 

curia: ipse volvens multa secum ibi, 
the senate-house; he revolving many (things) with himself there, 

quod neque insidiae consuli procedebant, 
because neither the stratagems for [against] the consul did succeed, 

et intelligebat urbem munitam ab incendio 
and he did understand the city (to be) secured 	from fire 

vigiliis, credens 	optumum factu augere 
by watches, beleiving (it) best to be done to increase (his) 

exercitum, ac ante-capere multa quae forent 
army, and to anticipate many (things) which might be 

usui 	bello prius-quam legiones scriberentur, 
to advantage for war before-that 	the legions should be levied, 

profectus-est intempesta 	nocte cum paucis in 
he set-out in untimely (very-late) night 	with a few into 

Manliana castra. Sed mandat, Cethego, atque 
the Manlian camp. But he commands to Cethegus, 	and 

Lentulo que caeteris, promptam andaciam quorum 
Lentulus and 	others, the ready boldness of whom 

cognoverat, confirment 		opes 
he had known, (that) they may strengthen (to strengthen) the resoureces 

factionis quibus rebus possent, maturent 
of the faction by what things your might be-able, may hasten

	insidias consuli, 	parent 	caedem, 
(to hasten) snares for the consul, may prepare (to prepare) slaughter, 

incendia, que alia facinora belli: sese 
burnings, and 	other cruel-deeds 	of war: himself (to be) 

accessurum 		propediem cum magno exercitu 
about-to-approach 	shortly 	with 	a great 	army 

ad urbem. 	Dum haec 		geruntur Romae, 
to the city. 	While those (things) are carried-on at Rome, 

Caius Manlius mittit legatos ex suo numero 
Caius Manliua sends ambasaadors out-of his-own number 

ad Quintum Martium Regem cum mandatis hujusce­modi 
Quintus Martius Rex with commands of this kind. 

Testamur deos que hommes, imperator, nos 
	We attest gods and men, [O commander,] us

	cepisse 			arma neque contra 
to have taken (that we have taken) arms neither against [our] 

patriam, neque quo faceremus periculum aliis, 
country, nor in-order-that we might make danger to others, 

sed uti nostra corpora forent tuta ab injuria: 
	but that our bodies might be safe from injury: 

qui miseri, egentes, plerique sumus expertes, 
who retched, needing, most (of us) are deprived, 

violentia atque crudelitate foeneratorum, 	patriae, 
by the violence and cruelty 	of usurers, (of) country, 

sed omnes fama atque fortuna: neque 
but all [from] of character and fortune: and 

licuit 	cuiquam nostrum, more 	majorum 
has it been-lawfu1 for any of us, in the manner of (our) ancestors 

uti lege, neque habere liberum corpus, 
to use the 1aw, nor to have a free body (person), (our) 

patrimonio amisso: tanta fuit saevitia foeneratorum
patrimony having been lost: so-great has been the cruelty of the usurers 

atque praetoris. Saepe majores 
and 	pretor (chancellor). Often the ancestors 

vestrlim miseriti Romanae plebis, opitulati-sunt 
of you having pitied the Roman commonalty, 	relieved 

inopiae ejus suis decretis: ac propter magnitudinem
the want of it by their decrees: and on-account-of the magnttude 

alieni-aeris argentum solutum-est aere novissume, 
of debt silver was paid 	by brass very lately, 

vestra. memoria, omnibus bonis 	volentibus. 
in your memory, 	all good (persons) 	willing (assenting) 

Saepe plebes 	ipsa, permota aut studio 
Often the commons themselves, 	influenced either by a zeal 

dominandi aut superbia magistratuum, secessit 
of ruling 	or by the pride of the magistrates, seceded 

armata a patribus. At nos petimus non imperium
armed from the fathers. But we seek not command 

neque divitias, causa quarum omnia bella atque 
nor riches, on-account of which all wars 	and 

certamina sunt inter mortalis (mortales): sed 
contests 	are 	among 	mortals: 	but 

libertatem, quam nemo bonus 	amittit, nisi 
liberty, which no good (man) 	loses, unless 

simul cum anima. Obtestamur to atque senatum, 
together with life. 	We conjure you and the senate, 

	consulatis 	miseris civibus; 
(that) you may consult (that you provide) for wretched 	citizens; 

restituatis praesidium legis, quod iniquitas 
may restore the security of the law, which the iniquity 

praetoris eripuit, neve-imponatis nobis
of the pretor has taken-away, and (that) you impose-not on us 

necessitudinem, ut quaeramus quonam modo 
the necessity, that we may seek (to seek) in what manner 

pereamus, 	ulti maxuma nostrum sanguinem. 
we may perish, having avenged-chiefly best) our blood 
after having sold our lives dearly. 

	Quintus Martius respondit ad haec, 	Si 
	Quintus 	Martius 	answered to these (things), If 

vellent 	petere quid 	ab senatu, 
they would [they wished] to seek any (thing) from the senate, 

discedant ab armis, proficiscantur supplices Romam: 
they may depart from arms, may set-out suppllant to Rome 
[they should lay down their arms, and go as suppliants to Rome]

senatum que Romanum populum 
(he answers) [that] the senate 	and 	Romau people 

fuisse semper 		ea misericordi
to have been always with (of) [always posesed] that pity 

atque mansuetudine, ut nemo unquam petiverit 
and gentleness, that no-one 	ever may have sought 

auxilium ab co frustra. At Catilina ex 
(has sought) 	aid 	from it in vain. But Catiline on 

itinere mittit literas plerisque consularibus, 
(his) journey 	sends 	letters to most consular-men, 

praeterea cuique 	optumo: 
moreover to each 	most excellent [and distinguished] (person): 

se 	circumventum falsis criminibus, quoniam 
himself 	being beset 	by false 	accusations, 	since 

nequiverit 		resistere 	factioni 
he may have been-unable to withstand to the faction 

inimicorum, proficisci Massiliam in exilium; 
of (his) enemies, 	to set-out to Massilia into banishment; 

non quod esset conscius sibi tanti sceleris, 
not because be might be conseious to himself of so-great a crime, 

sed uti respublica foret quieta; ve ne seditio 
but that the republic might be peaceable; or lest a sedition 

oriretur ex sua contentione. 	Quintus Catulus 
might arise out-of his dispute.   Quintos Catulus 

recitavit in senatu literas longe diversas ab 
read-aloud in the senate letters (a letter), far different from 

his; quas dicebat redditas sibi nomine 
these (this); which he did say (to be) delivered to him in the name 

Catilinae. Exemplum earum scriptum-est infra. 
of Catiline. 	The copy of those (it) has been written beneath. 

Lucius Catilina Quinto Catnlo salutans. Tua egregia 
Lucius Cataline to Quintus Catulus greeting. Your excellent

fides, grata mihi, re 	cognita, 
faith (honour), [so] agreeable to me, the thing having been known 

	tribuit 	fiduciam meae 
[and known to me by experience], has afforded me confidence to my 

commendationi meis magnis periculis. Quamobrem 
recommendation in my great dangers.  Wherefore 

statui 	non parare defensionem in 	novo 
[have resolved not to prepare a defence in (my) new 

consilio: 	decrevi proponere satisfactionem ex 
design : I have determined to propose satisfaction from 

nulla conscientia de culpa, quae medius-fidius 
no consoiousness of fault, which by Jove's-son 	(Hercules] 

licet 	recognoscas mecum vera. 	Concitatus 
it-is-lawful you may reeognise with me (to be) true. 	Provoked 

injuriis que contumeliis, quod 	privatus 
by injuries and insults, 	that having been deprived [that have 

fructu 	laboris que meae industriae, 
deprived me] (of) the fruit of [my] labour and my industry, 

obtinebam non statum dignitatis, 
I did possess 	not the station of dignity [and which prevented me 

			suscepi, 	pro 
from obtaining the dignity or consul], I have undertaken, according-to 

mea consuetudine, publicam causam miserorum: 
my custom, the public cause of the wretched: 

non quin possem 	solvere alienum-aes meis 
not but, 	I might be-able to discharge the debt in-my-own 

nominibus ex 	possessionibus; 
names  (on my own account) out-of (my) possesions; 

cum et 	liberalitas Aureliae Orestillae persolveret 
when and (also) the liberality of Aurella Orestllla would discharge 

aliis nominibus, 
(debt) under other names (the securities for his debts) [his suretyship 

	suis 	que 	copiis 
for the debts or others], from her-own and the resources of (her) 

filiae: sed quod videbam non-dignos homines 
daughter: but because I did see unworthy 	men 

honestatos honore, 	que sentiebam me 
dignified by honour (preferment), and did feel 	myself 

alienatum falsa suspicione. Hoc nomine 
estranged by a false suspicion.  With this name (consideration) 

secutus-sum satis honestas spes reliquae dignitatis 
I have-followed sufficiently honourable hopes of remaining 	dignity, 

conservandae 	pro 
to-be-preserved (of preserving my remaining dignity) according-to 

meo casu. Cum vellem scribere plura, nuneiatum-est 
my condition. When I would to write more, it has been told 

vim parari 		mihi. Nunc 
violence to be prepared (that violence was designed) for me. Now 

commendo Orestillam tibi, que trado tuae fidei. 
I commend Orestilla to you, and I deliver (her) to your honour. 

Rogatus per tuos liberos defendas eam 
Entreated by your children (that) you may defend her 

ab injuria. 	Haveto. 
from injury. 	Farewell. 

Sed ipse, commoratus paucos dies apud Caium 
But, he, having delayed a few days with Caius 

Flaminium in Reatino agro, dum exornat armis 
Flaminius in the Reatine land, while be furnishes with arms 

vicinitatem 	antea solieitatam, 	contendit cum 
the neighborhood before stirred-up, hastens 	with 

fascibus atque aliis insignibus imperii in castra 
the fasces and other ensigns of authority to the camps

ad Manlium. Ubi haec 	comperta-sunt Romae, 
to Manlius. 	When these (things) were found-out at Rome, 

senatus judicat Catilinam et Manlium hostes; statuit 
the senate judges Catiline and Manlius enemies; appoints

diem caeterae multitudini, ante quam 	lioeret 
a day for the other multitude, before which it might be-lawful 

discedere ab armis, sine frande, praeter 
to depart from arms, [without frand] [with impunity], 	except 

	condomnatis capitalium rerum. 	Praeterea 
for (those) condemned 	of capital things (crimes). 	Moreover 

decernit, uti consules habeant 
it (the senate) decrees, that the consuis may have (should hold) 

delectum; 	Antonius maturet  persequi 
a levy; 	[that] Antony 	may (should) hasten to pursue 

Catilinum cum exercitu; 	Cicero sit praesidie 
Catiline [with an army;  [that] Cicero be for a protection 

	urbi. 	Imperium 	Romani 
to the city [should proteet the city). The government of the Roman 

populi visum-est mihi multo maxume miserabile 
people has appeared to me by much the most pitiable 

ea tempestate: cui cum omnia 	ab 	ortu 
at that time: 	to which when all (things) from [the] rising 

ad occasum solis, domita armis, parerent; 
to the setting of the sun, subdued by arms, might obey (obeyed); 

otium atque divitiae, quae mortales putant prima, 
leisure and riches, 	which mortals think the chief 

	adfluerent 		domi; fuere, tamen, 
(blessings), might abound at home; there were, however, 

cives, qui irent obstinatis animis perditum 
Citizens who would go (went) with obstinate minds to destroy 

que se que rempublicam. 	Namque neque 
both themselves and the republic. 	For neither 

quisquam omnium ex tanta. multitudine, duobus 
any one of-all out-of so-great a multitude, two 

decretis senati, inductus praemio, patefacerat 
decrees of the senate (existing), induced by reward, had discovered 

conjurationem 	discesserat 	ex castris (pl.) 
the conspiracy, 	(or] had departed 	out-of 	the camp 

Catilinae. Tanta vis morbi, atque uti tabes, 
of Catiline. So-great a violence of disease, and as an infection, 

invaserat plerosque animos civium. Neque mens 
had seized most the minds of the citlzens. Neither the mind 

erat aliena solum illis, qui fuerunt conscii 
was disaffected only to those who were conscious (privy to) 

conjurationis, sed cuncta plebes 	omnino probabat 
of the conapiracy, but all the common-people altogether did approve 

incepta Catilinae, studio 	novarum rerum. 
the undertakings of Catiline, from a zeal of new things

				Adeo 	videbatur facere 
(a revolution). 	Thus it (the common-people) seemed to do 

id 	suo 	more. 	Nam semper in civitate, 
that from their custom. 	For always in a state, (they) 

quibus nullae opes sunt, invident bonis, extollunt 
to whom no resources are, envy the good, extol 

malos, odere vetera, exoptant nova; 
the bad, have hated (hate) 	old (things), wish for 	new

student omnia mutari odio 	suarum 
desire all (things) to be changed from a hatred of their-own 

rerum, aluntur sine cura turba, 	atque 
things, are maintained without care in crowd (consfusion), and 

seditionibus: quoniam egestas retinetur facile sine 
seditions:  since want is retained easily without 

damno. 		Sed vero ea urbana 
loss 	[poverty can lose nothing]. But indeed that city 

plebes ierat praeceps de multis causis. Primum 
commonality had gone headlong for many causes, First 

omnium qui ubique maxume praestabant probro 
or all (they) who [everywhere] cheifly did excel in infamy 

atque petulantia; item alii, patrimoniis amissis 
and impudence; likewise others, (their) patrimonies having been lost

per dedecora; postremo, omnes quos flagitium aut 
through digraces; lastly, all 	whom wickedness or 

facinus 	expulerat domo; 	hi 	confluxerunt 
crime had driven-out from home; these flowed together 

Romam, sicuti in sentinam. Dein multi memores 
to Rome, as to a sewer. Then many mindful 

Sullanae victoriae, quod videbant alios 	ex 
of the Syllanian victory, because they did see others (some) 01 

gregariis militibus senatores; alios ita divites ut 
the common 	soldiers senators; 	other so rich that 

	agerent 	aetatem 	regio victu atque 
they might spend 	age (their life) with royal food and 

cultu; quisque sperabat talia sibi 	ex 
dress; everyone did hope such (things) for himself from 

victoria si foret in armis. Praeterea juventus, 
victory, 	If he might he in arms. 	Besides 	the youth 

quae toleraverat inopiam in 	agris 	mercede 
who has supported poverty 	in the fieds by the reward 

manuum, 	excita privatis atque publicis 
of hands (manual labour), excited by private and public

largitionibus, praetulerat urbanum otium ingrato 
bribes, 	had preferred city 	ease to disagreeble 

labori. Publicum malum alebat eos atque omnis
labour. The public calamity did maintain those and all 

(omnes) alios. 	Quo est minus mirandum, 
others (such). Wherefore it is less to-be-wondered-at, 

egentis (egentes) homines, 	malis 	moribus, 
that 	needy 	men, 	with had 	priciples, 

maxuma. spe consuluisse juxta reipublicae  ac sibi.
with the greatest hope to have consulted equally for the republic 
and themselves. [Had consulted their private interest as much as 
that of the republic].

Praeterea 	parentes 	quorum 
Moreover 	(those) the parents of  whom (were) 

proscripti vintoria. Sullae, 	bona erepta, 
proscribed in the victory of syllae, (their) goods snatched away, [and 

jus libertatis erat imminutum, exspectabant 
the] privilege of liberty was impaired, did await 

eventum belli hand sane alio animo. 
the issue of the war not indeed with other mind. [With like feelings]. 

Ad-hoc, quicumque erant aliarum partium atque 
Besides, 	whosoever were of other factions than (that) 

senatus, malebant rempublicam conturbari quam 
of the senate, had-rather 	the republic 	to be distnrbed than 

ipsi valere minus: 		adeo id 
they to prevale less:  [should have less influence]: so that 

malum reverterat in civitatem post multos annos. 
evil had returned to the state after many years. 

Nam postquam tribunitia protestas restituta-est, 
For 	after the tribunician power was restored, 

Cneio Pompeio et Marco Crasso consulibus, 
Cneius Pompey and Marcus Crassus (being) consuls, 

adolescentes homines nacti summam potestatem, 
young men having obtained the highest power, 

quibus aetas que animus erat ferox, 
[the tribunician], to whom age and mind was fierce 

	coepere exagitare 		plebem criminando 
(ardent), began to harass [agitate] the commons by accusing 

senatum; dein incendere magis largiundo, 
the senate then to inflame (them) more by bribing, 

atque 	pollicitando; 					ita ipsi 
and 	by promising-often; [by bribes and promises]; thus they (began) 

fieri 	clari 	que potentes. Pleraque nobilitas 
to be made conspicuous and powerful. Most the nobility 

nitebatur contra eos summa ope: 
endeavoured against them with utmost might: [the greater part of the 
nobility strove against them with all their might]

sub specie senatus, 		pro sui magnitudine. 	Namque 
under pretence of (for) the senate, (but) for their own greatness. 	For 

uti absolvam verum paucis, 	quicumque 
that I my despatch true (the truth) in a few (words), whosever 

agitavere rempublicam 	per 	illa tempora., 
harassed the republic 	during those 	times, (under) 

honestis nominibus, 	alii sicuti 	defenderent 
honourable 	names (pretences), some as-though they would defend 

	jura 	populi; pars 	quo 	auctoritas senatus 
the rights of the people; part in-order-that the authority of the senate 

foret 	maxuma, simulantes publicum bonum, 
might be the greatest, pretending the public good, [but] 

certabant quisque pro sua. 	potentia: neque 
did contend 	each for 	his-own 	power: 	Neither 

modestia, neque modus contentionis erat 	illis: 
moderation, 	nor (limit) of dispute was to them: 
[their contests with one another were carried on most violently]

utrique: exercebant victoriam crudeliter. Sed postquam 
both did exercise victory cruelly. 	But after 

Cneius Pompeius missus-est ad maritimum atque 
Cneius Pompeius 	was-sent 	to the maritime 	and 

Mithridaticum bellum, 	opes 	plebis 
Mithridatic 	war, the resources or the commons (were) 

imminutae, potentia paucorum crevit. Hi 
impaired, 	the power  of a few increased. These (began 

tenere magistratus, provincias, que omnia alia: 
to posess magistracies, 	provinces, and all other (things): 

ipsi innoxii, 	florentes, agere aetatem sine 
they free-from injury, flourishing, to-spend age without

metu, que terrere caeteros judiciis, 
fear, and to affright others, by judgments, [they free 
from danger, alarmed others by judicial investigations],

quo in magistratu tractarent plebem plaeidius, 
in-order-that (when) in the magistracy they might 
manage the commons more-gently. [And not excite
commotion among them.]

Sed ubi spes oblata-est dubiis rebus novandis, vetus 
But when hope was offered for [adverse] things to-be-renewed (changed), the old 

certamen arrexit animos eorum. Quod 
contest raised the minds of them. [Raised their courage].  But 

si Catilina discessisset superior 
if Catiline might have departed (had departed)  (come off) superior 

primo praelio, aut aequa manu, profecto magna 
in the first battle, or with an equal force, indeed a great 

clades atque calamitas oppressisset rempublicam, 
slaughter 	and 	calamity might have oppressed the republic, 

neque 		licuisset illis qui 
neither 	might It have been-lawfull [permitted] 	for those 	who 

adepti-forent 	victoriam 	uti 	ei 
might have obtained 	(had obtained) 	victory 	to use 	it 

diutius; quin 	qui posset-plus 	extorqueret 
(longer); but (the party) who might be more powerful would wrest 

imperium atque libertatem defessis et exsanguibus. 
authority and liberty from the wearied and exhausted. 

Tamen complures fuere extra conjurationem, qui 
However many were 	without the conspiracy, 	who 

profecti-sunt initio ad Catilinam 	In his 
set-out in the beginning to Catiline. 	Among these 

erat Fulvius, filius senatoris, quem 	parens jussit 
was Fulvius, the son of a senator, whom (his) father ordered 

retractum ex 	itinere, 	necari. 	Iisdem 
brought-back from (his) journey, to be-put-to-death, At the same

temporibus Lentulus sollicitabat Romae quoscumque 
times (time) 	Lentulus did stir-up at Rome whomsoever

credebat idoneos, moribus aut fortuna, novis 
he did believe fit, by morals or fortune, for new 

rebus, sicuti Catilina praeceperat; neque 
things (a revolution), as Catiline had ordered neither 

solum cives, sed genus hominum cujuscumque 
only citizens, but a kind of men of any (whatever) 

modi, quod modo foret usui bello.  Igitur 
description, which only might be for advautege to the war. Therefore 

dat negotium 	cuidam Publi o Umbreno, 
he gives 	business a (commission) to a certain Publius Umbrenus, 

uti requirat legatos Allobrogum: que impellat 
that he may find-out the deputies of the Allobroges: and impel 

eos, si possit, ad societatem belli, existumens 
them, if he may be able, to an alliance of the war, thinking, 

eos oppressos publice que privatim alieno-aere: 
those oppressed publicly and privately by debt: 

praeterea quod Galliea gens esset 	bellicosa. 
moreover that the Gallic nation might be (was) warlike 

natura, 	posse facile adduci ad tale 
by nature, to be able (might) easily be brougbt-over to such 

consilium. Umbrenus notus-erat plerisque principibus 
a design.   Umbrenus had been known to most 	the chief. 

civitatum, atque noverat eos, quod negotiatus-erat 
of the states, and had known them, because he bad trafficked 

in Gallia: itaque sine mora, ubi-primum conspexit 
in Gaul: 	therefore witbout delay, as-soon as he beheld 

legatos in foro, percuuctatus pauca 
the deputies in the market-place, [forum], having inquired a few 

	de 	statu 	civitatis, et quasi dolens 
(things) concerning the condition of the state, and as-if bewailing 

casum ejus, coepit requirere quem exitum sperarent 
the lot of it, began to ask what issue they might hope 

tantis malis. Postquam videt 	illos 	queri 
to so-great evils. 	After he sees [that] them to complain 

de avaritit magistratuum, accusare 
[they complain] of the avarice 	of the magistrates, to accuse 

senatum, quod esset nihil auxilii in 
the senate, because there might be (was) nothing of redress in 

eo; 	exspectare mortem remedium 	suis 
it; (and) to await 	death (as) a remedy for them

miseriis: "At ego," inquit, "ostendam rationem 
miseries: But I," he says, "will-point-out a plan 

vobis, si modo-vultis esse viri, 
to you, if you-only-wish to be men, [if you would only be men], 

qua effugiatis ista tanta mala." Ubi dixit 
by which you may eseape those so-great evils," 	When he said 

haec, Allobroges adducti in maxumam spem, 
these (things), the Allobroges led into the greatest hope, 

orare Umbrenum uti misereretur sui: 
(began) to entreat [Umbrenus] that he might pity themselves: [that] 

nihil esse tam asperum, neque tam difficile, 
nothing to be [was] so rough, nor so difficult, 

quod 	facturi-essent non cupidissime, 
which they would-be-about-to-do not most-desirously, [but that they 

dum 	ea 			res liberaret civitatem 
would most willingly do], provided that thing might free 	the state 

alieno-aere. Ille perducit eos in domum Decii 
from debt, 	He leads them into the house or Decius 

Bruti, quod erat propinqua foro, neque aliena 
Brutus, because it was near to the forum, and not unacquainted 

consilii 	propter Semproniam, nam Brutus 
of the design (conspiracy) on-account-of Sempronia, for 	Brutus 

aberat 	tum 	ab 	Roma. Praeterea 		arcessit 
was absent then from 	Rome. 	Besides 	he sends-for 

Gabinium, 	quo 	major auctoritas inesset 
Gabinius, 	in-order-that greater authority 	might be-in to (his) 

sermoni; eo praesente, aperit 	conjurationem, 
diseourse; he being present, he discloses the conspiracy 

nominat socios, 	prretcrea multos innoxios 
names the associates, 	moreover many innocent (men) 

cujusque generis, quo animus 	esset 
of every 	kind, in-order-that mind (courage) might be 

amplior 	legatis: dein dimittit eos domum, 
greater to the deputies: then he dimisses them home, 

pollicitos suam operam. Sed Allobroges habuere 
having promised their assistance. But the Allobroges had 

diu 	in incertum, 	quidnam consilii 
for-a-long time into uncertain (were in doubt), what of councel 

caperent. 	In altera 	parte erat alienum-aes, 
they might take, 	In the other (one) part was debt, 

studium belli, magna merces in spe victoriae ; at 
zeal of war, great reward in the hope of victory; but 

majores opes, tuta consilia, certa praemia 	pro 
greater resources, safe counsels, certain rewards instead-of 

incerta spe in altera. Illis volventibus haec, 
uncertain hope on the other (side).  They revolving these 

tandem fortuna reipublieae vicit. 		Itaque 
(things) at-length the fortune of the state prevailed. Therefore 

aperiunt omnem rem, uti cognoverant, 		Quinto 
they diselose all 	the thing, as they had known (it), to Quintus 

Fabio Sangae, patrocinio cujus civitas utebatur 
Fabius Sanga, the patronage of whom the state did use 

plurimum. Cicero, 	consilio cognito 	per 
very-much, Cicero, the design having been known through 

Sangam, praecipit 	legatis, ut 	simulent 
Sanga, 	orders to (the) deputies, that they may pretend (to pretend) 

vehementer studium 	conjurationis; 
vehemently a zeal of (for) the conspiracy; may (to) 

adeant caeteros; 		polliceantur bene, 
go-to the rest [of the conspirators]; may (to) promise well, 

que 	dent operam, ut habeant eos 
and may (to) give exertion, [assurance], that they may have them 

quam maxume manifestos. 
as most manifest (convicted). [As avowed participants in the conspiracy],

Motus 	erat 	fere 	iisdem 
A commotion was almost in the same 

temporibus, in citeriore atque ulteriore Gallia, 
times (time), in hither and farther Gaul, 

item in Piceno agro, Bruttio, Apulia. Namque 
also in the Picene land, in Bruttium, Apulia. For 

illi quos Catilina dimiserat antea 	agere 
they whom Catiline had sent-off [before] (began) to do 

cuncta 	simul inconsulte, ac 	veluti 
all (things) at-the-same-time inconsiderately, and as-if 

per 	dementiam: 	effecerant 	plus timoris 
through 	madness:  they had effected more of fear 

quam periculi nocturnis conciliis, portationibus 
than of danger by nightly councils, by conveyances. 

armorum atque telorum, festinando, agitando 
of arms 	and 	of weapons, 	by hastening, by agitating 

omnia. 	Quintus Metellus Celer, caussa. cognita, 
all (things). 	Quintus Metellua Celer, the cause being known, 

conjecerat complures ex eo numero in vincula, 
had cast many of that number [into prison], 

ex 	consulto senatas. Caius Murena item, 
according-to a decree of the senate. Caius Murena (did) likewise, 

in citeriore Gallia, qui legatus praeerat ei 
in hither Gaul, who (as) lieutenant 	was-over to that 

provinciae, At Lentulus cum caeteris, 
[presided over that] province, But Lentulus with the others, 

qui erant principes conjurationis, magnis copiis 
who were chiefs of the conspiracy, great forces 

paratis 	Romae, uti videbatur, constituerat, 
having been prepared at Rome, as it did appear, had appointed, 

uti cum Catilina venisset cum exercitu 
that when Catiline might have come (had come) with an army 

in Faesulanum agrum, Lucius Bestia, tribunus 
into the Faesulan land, Lucius Bestia, tribune 

plebis, concione 	habita, 	quereretur de 
of the commons, an assembly being held, should complain 	of 

actionibus 	Ciceronis, que imponeret invidiam 
the proceedings 	of Cicero, and place the odium 

gravissimi belli 		optumo 	oonsuli; 
of (this) most-serious 	war to (on) the most-excellent consule 

eo signo, 	proxuma nocte, caetera multitudo 
by that sign (signal), [the nexe night], the remaining multitud

conjurationis exsequeretur quisque suum negotium. 
[of the conspiracy] should execute 	each his-own business (part). 

Sed ea dicebantur 	divisa hoc modo, 
But those (parts) 	were said (to be) divided in this manner, 

uti Statilius et Gabinius, cum magna manu, 
that Statilius and Gabinius, with a great band, 

incenderent 	duodecim opportuna loca 	urbis 
should set-fire-to twelve opportune places of the city 

	simul, 	quo tumultu facilior aditus fieret 
at-the-same-time, in which tumult an easier acceess might be made 

ad consulem, que caeteros quibus insidiae parabantur. 
to the consul, and the others for whom snares were prepared. 

Cethegus obsideret januam Ciceronis, que 
[That]  Cethegus should block-up the gate of Cicero, and 

aggrederetur eum vi ; 	autem alius 
should attack him with force; 	but another (should attack) 

alium: sed filii familiarum, quorum maxuma pars 
another: but the sons of families of whom the greatest part 

erat ex nobilitate, interficerent 	parentes: 
was of the nobility, should murder (their) 	parents; 

simul omnibus perculsis eaede et incendio, 
at the-same-time all being stricken by slaughter and by burning, 

	erumperent 	ad Catilinam. 	Inter haec 
they should burst-forth (sally) to Catiline. 	Among these 

parata atque decreta, Cethegus querebatur 
prepared (preparations) and determinations, Cethegus did ccmplain 

semper de ignavia. sociorum: illos 
always of the remissness or (his) associates: [that] those 

corrumpere 		magnas 	opportunitates 
to corrupt (mar) [did mar] great opportunities 

dubitando et prolatando dies; 
by hesitating and deferring days [and putting off the time for executing the plot]

esse opus in tali periculo, facto 
to be need 	in such 	danger, for deed 

non 	consulto: 	que se, si pauci 
not 	for deliberation : 	and [that] himself, If a few 

adjuvarent, aliis languentibus, facturum 
would assist, others being-remiss, about-to-make [wouId make] 

impetum in curiam. 	Erat natura ferox, 
an attack against the senate-house, 	He was by nature fierce, 

vehemens, promptus manu; 	putabat maxumum 
vehement, ready in hand (action); he did think the greatest 

bonum 	in celeritate. Sed Allobroges conveniunt 
good (to be) in despatch, 	But the Allobroges assemble (meet)

caeteros per Gabinium, 	ex 	praecepto 
the rest through Gabinius, according-to the directions 

Ciceronis: postulant jusjura.ndum, quod perferant 
of Cicero: they require an oath, Which they may carry 

signatum ad civis (cives), 	ab Lentulo, 
sealed to the citizens 	[of their state], from Lentulus, 

Cethego, Statilio, item Cassio: eos haud 
Cethegus, Statilius, also from Cassius: [that] those not 

posse 			facile 		impelli aliter ad tantum 
to be-able [could not] easily to be impelled otherwise so-great

negotium. Caeteri, suspicantes nihil, dant; Cassius 
an affair.  The others, suspecting nothing, give (it): Cassius

pollicetur semet venturum brevi eo, ac proficiscitur 
promises himself about-to-come shortly [there], and sets-out 

ex urbe paulo ante legatos. Lentulus mittit 
from the city a little before the ambassadors, Lentulus sends 

quemdam Titum Volturcium, Crotoniensem, cum his, 
certain Titus Volturcium, a Crotonian, with these, 

ut Allobroges confirmarent societatem cum Catilina, 
that the Allobroges might strengthen the alliance with Catiline, 

priusquam pergerent domum, fide 
before-that they might proceed home, faith (pledges of honour] 

	data 	atque accepta. Ipse dat literas 
having been given and received. He gives letters (an epistle) 

Voturcio ad Catilinam, exemplum quarum est 
to Volturcius for Catiline, a copy of which is

scriptum infra. 
written beneath. 

	Cognosces ex eo, quem 	misi 	ad te, 
	You will know from him, 	whom I have sent to you, 

qui sim. 				Fac 	cogites 
who I may be (I am). Take care to consider

in quanta calamitate sis, et memineris to 
In how-great calamity you may be, and 	remember

esse virum: 		consideres quid 
to be a man: 	(take care) to consider what 

tuae rationes 	postulent; 	petas 
your plans [circumstances] may require; you may seek 

auxilium ab omnibus, etiam ab infimis. 
aid from all, even from the lowest. 

Ad-hoc, dat mandata verbis: quo consilio 
Besides, he gives commands in words: with what design 

repudiet servitia? 
(reason) may he reject slaves? [why should he reject slaves?] 

cum judicatus-sit hostis ab senatu: 
since he has been judged an enemy by the senate 

	quae 	jusserit esse parata in urbe:
(the things) which he may have (hai) ordered to be prepared in city:
[the things which he had ordered to be dene in the city, are prepared]

ipse ne-cunctetur 		accedere 
himself may not-delay [that be should not delay] to approach 

propius. His rebus actis ita, constituta 
nearer, These things having been done so on the appointed 

nocte qua proficiscerentur, Cicero 	edoctus 
night on which they should set-out, Cicero having been instructed-in 

cuncta per legatos, 	imperat praetoribus, 
all (thing) by the ambassadors, orders to the pretors, 

Lucio Valerio Flacco et Caio Pomptino, ut deprehendant 
Lucius Valerius Flaceus and Caius Pomptinus, that they may seize 

comitatus Allobrogum, per insidias, 
(to apprehend) the attendants of the Allobroges, by ambush, 

in Mulvio ponte: aperit  omnem rem 
on the Mulvian bridge: be discovers [to them] all the thing 

gratia 	cujus mittebantur: 	agant 
by cause (for the sake) of which they were sent: they may do

caetera, uti 	sit opus facto. 
He allows them to execute the rest of the affair as occasion may require.] 

Militares homines, praesidiis collocatis sine tumultu, obsidunt 
(These] military men, the guards being arranged without tumult, beset 

pontem occulte, sicuti praeceptum-erat. Postquam 
the bridge secretly, as had been ordered.  After 

legati 		venere 	cum Volturcio ad id loci, 
the ambassadors came with Volturcis to that of place, 

clamor exortus-est 	simul utrimque. Galli, 
a shout arose at-the-same-time on-both-sides, the Gauls 

consilio cognito, cito tradiderunt 	Be 
the design being known [to them) , quickly delivered themselves 

sine mora praetoribus. Voltureius prima, cohortatus 
without delay to the pretors, Volturcius first, having encouraged 

caeteros, defendit se a multitudine gladio: 
the rest, defends 	himself from the multitude with as sword: 

dein ubi desertus-est as legatis, obtestatus 
then when he was deserted by the ambassadors, having conjured 
(having first entreated)

Pomptinum prius multa 
Pomptlnus 	before 	many (things) 

	de sua salute, 		quod notus-erat 	ei, 
earnestly concerning his safety, because be had been known to him, 

postremo, timidus ac diffidens vitae, dedit sese 
finally, fearful and distrusting for life, be surrenders himself 

praetoribus velut hostibus. 	Quibus rebus confectis, 
to the pretors as to enemies. 	Which things being finished, 

omnia declarantur propera per nuncios consuli. 
all are declared speedily by messengers to the consul, 

At ingens cura atque laetitia, simul, occupavere 
­But great anxiety and gladness, at-the-same-time, occupied 

illum. Laetabatur, intelligens civitatem esse 
him. 	He did rejoice, understanding the state to be 

ereptam periculis, conjuratione patefacta; autem 
rescued 	from danger, the conspiracy having be en exposed; but 

porro erat anxius quid esset opus facto 
moreover he was 	anxious	what might be necessary for deed 

tantis civibus, deprehensis in maxumo 
(to be done) so great citizens, being discovered in the greatest 

scelere; 			poenam illorum fore oneri 
wickedness; the punishment of them to-be-about-to-be for burden 

sibi, 	impunitatem reipublicae perdundae. 
to him, (their) pardon (the cause) of the republic to be destroyed. 
[Of the destruction of the republic.]

Igitur 	animo 	confirmato 
Therefore (his) mind having been strengthened (made up), 

jubet Lentulum, Cethegum, Statilium, Gabinium and Ceparium
he orders Lentulus, Cethegus, Statilium, Gabinium, que Ceparium 

Tarracinensem, qui parabat proficisci in Apuliam ad servitia concitanda, 
Tarracinianwho did prepare to set-out into Apulla to slaveries to-be-excited 
(to excite the slaves), 

vocari ad sese. Caeteri veniunt 
to be cailed to himself. 	The rest come 

sine mora. 	Ceparius egressus domo paulo 
without delay, Ceparius having departed from home a little

ante, indicio 	cognito, profugerat ex urbe. 
before, the discovery having been known, had fled out-of the city. 

Consul ipse, tenens Lentulum manu, quod erat 
The consul self, holding Lentulus by the hand, because he was 

praetor, perducit 	in senatum; jubet reliquos 
pretor, leads (him) into the senate; he orders the rest 

venire cum custodibus in aedem Concordiae. Advocat 
to come with guards into the temple of Concordo. He summons 

senatum eo, que introducit Volturcium cum 
the senate thither, and introduces Volturcius with 

legatis magna frequentia 	ejus ordinis; 
the ambassadors in a great fulness (attendance) of that order; 

jubet Flaccum, praetorem, adferre 	eodem 
be orders Flacus, the pretor, to bring to the-same-place 

scrinium, cum literis, quas acceperat as 
the writing-desk, with the letters, which he had received from 

legatis. 			Volturcius interrogatus de itinere, 
the ambassadors. Volturcius being questioned concerning the journey, 

de literis, postremo, quid consilii habuisset, 
concerning the letters, finally, what design he might have had 

	aut de qua causa, prima 	fingere 
(he had), or 	about what cause, at-first (began) to feign 

omnia alia, dissimulare de conjuratione ; 
all other things), to dissemble concerning the conspiracy;

post ubi jussus-est dicere publica fide, 
after when he was ordered to speak on the publie honour, 
[being given him for his saftey]

	aperit omnia, 	uti 	gesta-erant 
he disclosed 	all (things), as they had been carried on

 	se 	ascitum-(esse) 
[that he] himself to have been attached [as was admitted] 

socium paucis diebus ante a Gabinio et Cepario;
an associate a few days before by Gabinius and Cepariuo; 

scire nihil amplius quam legatos
to know [that he knew] nothing more than the ambassadors; 

tantummodo solitum andire ex Gabinio, 
only (being) accustomed to hear from Gabinius, [that] 

Publium Autronium, Servium Sullam, Lucium Vargunteium,
Publius 	Autroniue, Servius Sylla, 	Lucius Vargunteius,

multos praeterea esse 	in ea conjuratione.  
[and] many besides to be [were] in that conspiracy. 

Galli fatentur eadem, at coarguunt Lentulum
The Gauls confess the same, but they convict Lentulus

dissimulantem, praeter literas sermonibus,  
dissembling, beside the letters (letter), by discourses, 

quos ille solitus-erat habere, regnum 
which he had been accustomed to have [with them] the kingdom 

Romae portendi tribus Corneliis ex Sibyllinis
of Rome to be foretold to three Cornelii out-of the Sibylline 

libris: Cinnam atque Sullam antea; se 
books: Cinna and Sylla (possessed it) before himself 

esse tertium, 		cui fatum foret 
to be the third, to whom fate would be [whose fate it would be] 

	potiri 	urbis; praeteres illum esse vigesimum 
to be-master of the city; moreover 	that to be the twentieth 

annum 	ab 	Capitolio 	incenso, 	quem 
year  from the Capitol being burned, 	which (year) 

haruspices saepe respondissent 	ex 
the soothsayers often 	might have answered (had answered) from 

prodigiis fore cruentum civili bello. 	Igitur 
prodigies to be-about-to-be bloody by civil war.  Therefore 

literis perlectis, 	cum 	omnes 
the letters having been read-through, when all 

cognoviscent sua signa, 		senatus 
might have known (had admitted) their-own signs (seals), the senate 

decernit, ut Lentulus, magistratu abdicato, que 
decrees, 	that Lentulus, the magistracy being resigned, and 

item 	caeteri, habeantur in liberis custodiis. 
likewise 	the rest, 	mightr be kept in free custodies 
(in the custody of private persons)

Itaque traduntur, 
therefore they are delivered (thus) 

Lentulus Publio Lentulo Spintheri, qui erat tum 
Lentulus 	to Publius Lentulus Spinther, who was then 

aedilis; Cethegus Quinto Cornificio; Statilius Caio 
edile; Cethegus to Quintus Cornificius; Statilius to Caius 

Caesari ; Gabinius Marco Crasso; Ceparius (nam is 
Caesar; Gabinius to Marcus Crassus; Ceparius (for he 

	retractus-erat 	paulo ante 	ex fuga) Cneio 
had been brought-back a little 	before from flight) to Cneius 

Terentio, senatori. Interea plebes, conjuratione 
Terentius, a senator. 	Mean-time the commons, 	the conpiraoy 

patefacta, quae primo cupida novarum rerum, 
being discovered, who at first (being) desirous of new things 
(a revolution),

favebat 	nimis 	bello, 	mente 
did favour too-much to the war, (their) 	mind 

mutata, 	exsecrari consilia Catilinre, tollere, 
being changed, (began) to execrate the designs of Catiline, to raise 

Ciceronem ad coelum; velut erepta ex servitute 
Cicero to heaven as if rescued from slavery (they) 

agitabat 	gandium atque laetitiam. Namque 
did agitate (display) 	joy and gladness.  For 

putabat alia facinora. belli 	fore 
(the common people) did think other exploits of war to be about-to-be 

praedae magis quam 	detrimento, vero 
for booty rather 	than [to themselves] injury, but 

incendium crudele, immoderatum, ac maxume 
burning (to be) cruel, immoderate, 	and 	chiefly 

calamitosum sibi; 	quippe 	cui 	omnes 
calamitous to themselves; because (an order) to whom all 

copiae erant in quotidiano usu et cultu corporis. 
supplies were in daily use and dress of body. 
[Since all their property consisted of things in daily use, 
and of clothing]. 

Post eum diem, quidam 	Lucius Tarquinius 
After that day, a certain 	Lucius Tarquillius 

adductus-erat 	ad 	senatum, 	quem aiebant 
had been brought-up to the senate, whom they did say 

		retractum 	ex 	itinere, 
(to have been) brought-back from (his) 	journey, (when) 

proficiscentem ad Catilinam. Cum is diceret 
setting-out 	to 	Catiline. 	When he might say (said) 

se 	indicaturum 		de 
himself 	about-to-inform 	[that he would intorm] 	concerning. 

conjuratione, si publica :fides 	data-esset, 
the conspiracy, 	if the public faith might have been given 
[to him for safety], 

jussus a consule edicere quae sciret, 
being ordered by the consul to declare what he might know, 

edocet senatum fere eadem 	quae Volturcius, 
he informs the senate almost the same (things) which Volturcius (did), 

de incendiis 	paratis, 	de eaede bonorum, 
of burnings having been prepared, of the murder of good (men), 

de itinere hostium: praeterea, se missum a
of the march of the enemies: 	moreover, 	himself being sent by 

Marco Crasso, qui nunciaret 	Catilinae, 
Marcus Crassus 	who might tell (to tell) to Catiline, (that) 

Lentulus, et Cethegus, que alii ex conjuratione, 
Lentulus, and Cethegus, and others of 	the conspiracy, 

deprehensi 	ne-terrerent 	eum; 	que 
having been apprehended 	should not-affright 	him; 	and 

properaret magis eo accedere ad urbem, 
he should hasten the more therefore to-approach to the city, 

	qua 	et 	reficeret 	animos caeterorum, 
In-order-that and (both) he might refresh the minds of the rest, 

et illi eriperentur facilius e periculo. Sed 
and they might be rescued the more-easily from danger. But 

ubi Tarquinius nominavit Crassum, nobilem hominem, 
when Tarquinius 	named 	Crassus, 	a noble 	man, 

	maxumis 	divitiis, 	summa 	potentia, alii 
with the greatest 	riches, 	the highest 	power, 	some 

	rati 	rem 	incredibilem, pars, tametsi 
having supposed the thing 	incredible, 	a part, 	although 

existumabant verum, tamen, quia tanta 	vis 
they did think (it) true, yet, because so-great influence 

hominis 	videbatur 	leniunda. 	magis 	quam 
of the man did seem 	to-be-softened 	rather 	than

to-be-povoked [a man of such great infuence ought to be soothed rather 
than provoked]

	in 	tali 	tempore, plerique obnoxii 
 in 	such a time, 	many subservient 

Crasso 	ex 	privatis negotiis, conclamant, 
to Crassus from 	private 	affairs, 	cry-out, 	[that]

indicem esse 	falsum, que postulant uti
the informer to be [was] false, 	and 	require 	that

	referatur 	de 	ea re. 	Itaque, 
It may be referred (to the senate) concerning that thing. 	Therefore, 

Cicerone 	consulente, frequens 	senatus 
Cicero 	consulting (presiding), a crowded senate 

decernit, 	indicium 	Tarquinii 	videri 
decrees, 	the information of Tarquinius 	to be seem (to seem) 

falsum, que eum 	retinendum in vinculis; 
false, and him [to be] 	kept in 	bonds [prison] 

que potestatem 	ne amplius faciundam, 
and 	power (of divulging) not more 	to-be-made,  
[and that he be not allowed to proceed in his testimony],

	nisi 	indicaret 
unless he might inform 

de eo, consilio cujus mentitus-esset 
of him, by the advice of whom he might have (had) 	forged 

tantam rem. 	Erant eo tempore, 	qui 
so-great 	a thing. 	There were at that time, (persons), who 

existumarent 	illud machinatum a Publio 
might think (thought) that plotted by Publius 

Autronio, 	quo Crasso appellato, potentia illius 
Autronius, in-order-that Crassus being named, the power or him 

tegeret 	reliquos facilius, per 	societatem 
might screen the rest 	more-easily, 	by (his) 	share

	periculi. 	Alii 	aiebant 	Tarquinium 
of (in the) 	danger. 	Others did say Tarqulnius 

immiesum 	a Cicerone, ne Crassus, suo 
sent-in (suborned) by Cicero, lest Crassus, by his 

more 		conturbaret rempublicam, 
custom 	[as was his custom] might disturb the republic, 

patrocinio malorum suscepto. 	Ego postea 
the patronage of the bad being undertaken [by him]. I afterwards 

audivi Crassum ipsum praedicantem illam tantam 
heard Crassus [himself] openly declaring that so-great 

contumeliam  	impositam 	sibi as Cicerone. 
an insult (to have been) placed to (on) him by Cicero. 

Sed iisdem temporibus, Quintus Catulus et Caius 
But at-the-same times, Quintus Catullus and Caius 

Piso potuere impellere Ciceronem neque gratia, 
Piso were able to impel Cicero neither by interest, 

neque precibus, neque pretio, uti Caius Caesar 
nor 	by prayers, nor by price, that Caius Caesar

nominaretur falso per Allobroges aut alium indicem. 
might be named falsely by the Allobroges or other informer. 

Nam uterque exercebant gravis (graves) inimicitias 
For 	each (both) did exercise dreadful enmities 

cum illo; Piso oppugnatus in judicio 
with him; Piso having been assalted in a trial 

repetundarum (pl.), propter injustum supplicium 
of extortion, 	on-account-of the unjust punishment 

cujusdam Transpadani; 	Catulus incensus odio 
of a certain Transpadanian; Catulus being inflamed with hatred 

ex 	petitione 	pontificatus, quod 	usus 
from (since) his canvass of the high-priesthood, because having enjoyed 

maxumis honoribus (abl.) extrema aetate discesserat, 
the greatest 	honours (now) in extreme age he had departed, 

victus a Caesare, adolescentulo. Autem res 
conquered by Caesar, a young man. But the thing 

videbatur opportuna, quod is debebat grandem 
did seem opportune, 	because Caesar did owe great 

pecuniam 		egregia liberalitate privatim, 
money (as great debt) by extraordinary liberality privately, 

maxumis muneribus 		publice. Sed ubi 
by-very-great presents (exbibitions) publicly, But when 

nequeunt impellere consulem ad tantum facinus, 
they are-unable to impel the consul to so-great a crime, 

ipsi 	conflaverant magnam invidiam illi 
themselves had-contracted great odium for him 
[had excited great odium against him],

circumeundo singillatim, atque 
by-going-about individually, 	and 

ementiendo quae dicerent andisse 	ex 
by forging what they might-say (they said) to have heard from 

Volturcio, aut Allobrogibus; usque adeo, uti
Volturcius, or the Allobroges; until to-this (so far), that

nonnulli Romani equites, qui erant cum telis 
some Roman knights, who were with weapons [armed] 

circum aedem Concordiae, causa praesidii, 
about the temple of Concord, by cause (for the sake) of guard, 

impulsi 	seu 	magnitudine 	periculi, seu 
being impelled either 	by the magnitude or the danger, or 

mobilitate animi, 	qua suum studium in 
by levity of mind, In-order-that their zeal toward 

rempublicam esset clarius, minitarentur 
the republic might be more-conspicuous, might threaten (threatened) 

gladio Caesari egredienti ex senatu. Dum 
with a sword to Caesar going out from the senate. While

haec aguntur in senatu, et dum praemia 
these (things) are done in the senate, and while 	rewards 

decernuntur legatis Allobrogum et 	Tito 
are decreed to the ambassadors of the Allobroges and to Titus 

Volturcio, 	indicio 	eorum 	comprobato; 
Volturcius, the information of them having been approved, 

liberti et pauci ex clientibus 	Lentuli, 
the (freed-men and a few of the dependants of Lentulus, 

solicitabant, diversis itineribus, opifices atque 
did stir-up, 	in different 	directions, the mechanies 	and 

servitia 	in vicis ad eum eripiendum: 
slaves in the streets to him to-be-rescued: 
[to rescue him],

partim exquirebant duces multitudinum, 
partly (some) did search-out the leaders of multitudes (mobs)

qui 	soliti-erant 	vexare 	rempublicam 
who had been accustomed to harass the republic 

pretio. Autem Cethegus orabat per 	nuncios, 
for hire, But Cethegus did entreat through messengers, 

familiam atque suos libertos exercitatos in 
[his] household 	and 	his 	freed-men exercised in 

audaciam, uti grege 		facto 	irrumperent 
boldness, that a flock (band) having been formed, they would break-in 

ad sese cum telis. Consul, ubi cognovit ea 
to himself with weapons. the consul, When he knew those 

	parari, praesidiis 	dispositis, uti res 
(things) to be prepared, guards being arranged, as the thing 

atque tempus monebat, senatu convocato, refert 
and time 	did advise, the senate being convoked, 	refer. 

quid 	placeat 	fieri 	de 	his, qui 
(asks) what it may please to be done concerning those, who 

traditi-erant in custodiam. Sed frequens senatus 
had been-delivered into custody.  But a crowded senate 

judicaverat paulo ante eos fecisse 
had judged a little before [that] them to have acted [had acted] 

contra rempublicam. 	Tum Decius Junius Silanus 
against 	the republic. Then Decius Junius Silanus 

primus rogatus sententiam, quod eo tempore 
first being asked (his) opinion, because at that time 

erat consul designatus, decreverat supplicium sumendum 
he was consul elect, had decreed punishment to-be-inflicted 
[gave it as his opinion that punishment ought to be inflicted] 

de his, qui tenebantur in custodiis; et 
on those , who were detained in custodies; and 

praeterea. de Lucio Cassio, Publio Furio, Publio 
moreover on Lucius Cassius, Publius Furius, Publius 

Umbreno, Quinto Annio, si 	deprehensi-forent: 
Umbrenus, Quintus Annlus, if they might have been apprehended: 
[should they be apprehended]

que is 	postea 	permotua oratione 
and 	he afterwards affected by the speech

Caii Caesaris, dixerat 	se 			iturum pedibus 
of Caius Caesar, had said himself about-to-go on feet 
[that he was about to go into a division of the senate on the question]
 (without a speech) 

in sententiam Tiberii Neronis, 
Into the opinion of Tiberiua Nero, 

quod 	censuerat 	referendum 
because 	he had thought (it ought) to-be-referred (to the senate) 

de ea re, praesidiis additis. 
concerning this thing, [for further investigation], guards being added, 
(the prisoners being kept under guard],

Sed 	Caesar, 	ubi ventum-est ad eum, 	rOll:atua 
But 	Ceasar, 	when it was come to him (his turn), 
having been asked (his) 

sententiam 	a 	consule, 	locutus-est 	verba 
opinion 	by 	the consul, 	spoke 	words 

of this-kind: 

Conscripti patres, decet omnis (omnes) homines, 
	Conscript fathers, it becomes all men, 

qui consultant 	de dubiis 	rebus, esse 
who deliberate-often 	concerning doubtful 	things, 	to be 

vacuos ab odio, amicitia, ira, atque misericordia, 
free from hatred, friendship, anger, and pity. 

Animus 	haud facile providet 		verum, 
The mind (does) not easily foresees (perceive) true, (truth) 

ubi illa officiunt: neque quisquam omnium 
where those [things] obstruct [it]: neither any-one of-all 

paruit lubidini et usui simul. 	Ubi 
has obeyed to lust (passion) and to utility at-the-same-titne, 	When 

	intenderis 	ingenium, valet; si 
you may have applied (you apply) the understanding, it prevails; if 

lubido possidet, ea dominatur, animus valet nihil. 
Passion takes-possession, that 	rules, the mind prevails nothing. 

Conscripti patres, est 	mihi magna copia 
Conscript fathers, there is 	to me a great opportunity 

memorandi, 			qui reges aut qui populi 
of relating, [supply of examples], what kings or what peoples 

impulsi ira aut misericordia, consuluerint 
(people) impelled by anger or 	by pity, 	may have consulted 
(have consulted)

(perf. sub.) male: sed malo dicere ea, 
badly: but I had-rather mention those (things), 

quae nostri majores fecere recte atque ordine 
which our ancestors have done rightly and in order 

contra lubidinem sui animi. 	Macedonico bello, 
against the passion of their mind, In the Macedonian war, 

quod gessimus cum rege Perse, magna atque 
which we carried-on 	with king Perses, the great and 

magnifica civitas 	Rhodiorum, quae creverat 
magnificent state 	of the Rhodians, 	which had increased 

opibus Romani populi, fuit infida atque advorsa 
by the resources of the Roman people, was faithless and adverse

nobis: sed postquam, bello confecto, consultum-est
to us: but after-that, the war having been finished, it was deliberated  

de Rhodiis, nostri majores dimisere e06 
concerning the Rhodians, 	our ancestors dismissed them 

impunitos, ne quis diceret bellum 
unpunished, 	lest any-one might say the war (to have been) 

inceptum magis 	divitiarum, quam 
undertaken rather (on-account-of ) of riches, than of (repelling) 

injuriae. Item in omnibus Punicis bellis, cum 
injury. 	Likewise in all the Punic wars,  When 

Carthaginienses 	saepe 	fecissent multa 
the Carthaginians [often] might have done (had done) many 

nefanda facinora et in pace et per induoias, 
abominable acts both in peace and through truces, 

ipsi nunquam fecere talia per occasionem; 
they never did such (things) through opportunity 
though opportunity offered]; 

quaerebant magis quod foret 
they did seek rather what might be 

dignum se, quam quod posset fieri jure 
worthy themselves, than what might to be done with right 

in illos. Conscripti patres, hoc est item providendum 
unto them. Consoript fathers, this is likewise to be-provided-for 

	vobis, 	scelus 	Publii Lentuli et 
to (by) you, (that) the wickedness of Publius Lentulus and 

caeterorum ne-valeat plus apud vos, quam 
the rest 	may not-prevail more among (with) you, than 

vestra dignitas, neu consulatis vostrae irae 
your-own dignity, nor (that) you may consult to your anger 

magis quam famae. 	Nam si digna. poena 
more than to character, 	For if worthy punishment 

reperitur pro factis eorum, approbo novum consilium: 
is found for the deeds of them, I approve the new counsel, 

sin magnitudo sceleris exsuperat ingenia 
But-if the magnitude of the wickedness exceed the understandings 

omnium; censeo utendum 	iis 
of all; I think to-us (we must use) those (punishments), 

quae comparata-sunt legibus. Plerique eorum, qui 
which have been provided by the laws, 	Most of those, who 

dixerunt sententias ante me, miaerati-sunt 
have expressed (their) opinions before me, have bewailed 

casum reipublicae composite 	atque 
the misfortune of the republic elegantly (in fine language) and 

magnifice: enumeravere quae esset saevitis belli: 
Magnificently: they have enumerated what might be the cruelty of war: 

quae acciderent victis; virgines, pueros 	rapi; 
what might befall to the conquered; virgins, boys to be dragged-away; 

liberos divelli a complexu parentum; matres 
children to be torn from the embrace of parents; mothers 

familiarum pati, quae collibuissent victoribus; 
of families to suffer, what might have pleased to the eonquerors;

fana atque domos expoliari; caedem, incendia. 
temples and houses to be pillaged; 	slaughter, burnings 

fieri; 	postremo, omnia compleri armis, 
to be made; 	lastly, all (places) to be filled with arms, 

cadaveribus, cruore, atque luctu. Sed, per 
dead-bodies, gore, and grief.  But, by (in the name of) 

immortalis (immortales) deos, quo illa oratio pertinuit?
the immortal gods, where that 	speech has tended?
[What was the object of that speech)? 

An uti faceret vos infestos conjurationi? 
Whether that he might make you hostile to the conspiracy? 

Scilicet, oratio         accendet eum, quem tanta. 
Forsooth, a speech shall inflame him, whom so-great

atque tam atrox res       non-permovit!
and so heinous a thing has not affected!

Est non ita: neque suae injuriae 
It is not so neither their-own injuries 

videntur parvae cuiquam mortalium: multi habuere 
seem small to any 	of mortals: many have had (accounted) 

eas 	gravius 	aequo. Sed, conscripti 
them more-severely (than) just.  But, conscript 

patres, alia 	licentia est 	aliis. 
fathers, another (difference) license is to different (persons). 
[there is a difference in the freedom of action.]

Qui demissi agunt vitam in obscuro, si deliquere 
(They) who cast-down spend life in obscure (obscurity), 
[if they] have offended 

quid, 	iracundia pauci sciunt: 	fama 
(in) any (thing) [by anger] few know (it): the fame 

atque fortuna eorum sunt pares: cuncti mortales 
and 	fortune of them are equal:  all mortals 

novere 		facta eorum qui, praediti magno 
have known (know) the deeds of those who, endowed with great 

imperio, agunt aetatem in excelso. Ita 
authority, spend (their) life in lofty (station).  Thus 

minuma licentia 		est in maxuma fortuna. 
the least license [of action] is in the greatest fortune 

Decet neque studere, neque odisse, 	sed 
It becemes neither to favour, neither to have hated (to hate), but 

minume irasci. Ea quae dicitur iracundia apud 
least-of-all to- be-angry. 	That which is called anger amongst 

alios, 	appellatur superbia atque crudelitas in
others (some),  is called pride and cruelty in 

imperio. Equidem, conscripti patres, ego sic existume 
authority. Indeed, conscript fathers, I thus think 

omnis cruciatus esse minores quam facinora illorum 
all tortures to be less than the crimes of them 

Sed plerique mortales meminere postrema, 
But most mortals have remembered (remember) 	the last 

	et 	obliti 	sceleris eorum, disserunt 
(occurrences), and having forgotten the crime of them, discuss 

de poeni in impiis hominibus, si ea 
of punishment in (the case of) impious 	men, if it 

fuerit paulo severior. 	Scio certe 
may have been a little more-severe (too-severe). I know surely 

Decium Silanum, fortem atque strenuum virum, 
Decius Silanus, a bave and strenuous man, 

dixisse, quae dixerit (perf. sub.) studio reipublicae: 
to have said, what he may have said (has said) from seal for the repnblic:

neque illum exercere 	gatiam 
neither him to exereise favour 
[that he neither exercised]

aut inimicitias tanti re: cognovi eos 
or enmities in so-great a thing: I have known these (to be) 

mores, eam modestiam viri. 	Verum sententia 
the principles, that the moderation of the man. But the opinion 

ejus videtur mihi non crudelis (enim quid potest 
of him seems to me not cruel (for what can 

fieri crudele in talis (tales) homines?) sed aliena 
be done cruel against such 	men?) but foreign (averse)

a nostril republica. 	Nam profecto, 
from our republic (constitution). For indeed, 

Silane, aut metus aut injuria subegit te consulem 
Silane, either fear or injury compelled you a consul 

designatum, decernere novum genus poenae. 	Est 
elect, to decree a new 	kind or punishment. 	It is 

supervacaneum disserere de timore, cum tanta 
useless to discuss concerning fear, when so-great 

praesidia sint 	in armis praesenti diligentia 
guards may be (are) in 	arms by the prompt diligence 

clarissimi viri, consulis. Equidem possum dicere 
of a most-renowned man, the consul.  Indeed I can say 

id de poena, 			quod res habet: 
that of punishment, which the thing has (imports): [that] 

mortem esse requiem 		aerumnarum, non 
death to be [is] a rest or (from) 	toils,  not 

cruciatum, in luctu atque miseriis; 	eam 
a torture,  In grief and 	miseries; [that] it (death) 

dissolvere 	cuncta 	mala. mortalium; locum 
to dissolve [dissolves) all [the] evils of mortals; a place. 

esse ultra 	neque 
to be beyond (it) neither 
[that there is no place beyond it either] 

curae neque 	gaudio. 	Sed per 
for care neither [or] joy.  But by (in the name of) 

immortalis (immortales) deos, quamobrem addidisti 
the immortal gods, why have you added 

non in sententiam, uti animadverteretur prius in 
not to the opinion, that it might be animadverted before against 

eos verberibus? 
them (they should be the first punished) with stripes? 

An, quia Porcia lex vetat? At aliae leges item jubent vitam 
Whether, because the Porcian law forbids? But other laws
also order life 

non eripi condemnatis civibus, sed exsilium 
not be snatched from condemned citizens, but exile 

permitti. An quia est gravius verberari quam 
to be allowed. Whether because it is 	severer to be scourged than 

necari? 	Autem quid est acerbum aut 
to be put-to-death?  But what is bitter or 

nimis grave in homines convictos tanti facinoris? 
too severe against men convicted of so great a crime? 

Sin, quia est levius, 	qui 	convenit 
But-if, because it is more-light (too light), by what 
(how) is-it-consistent 

observare legem in minore negotio, cum neg­lexeris
to observe the law in a less business, when you may 

(perf. sub.) eam in majore? 	At, 	
have-neglected it in a greater?  But, (some will say) 
[why all this debate]

enim quis reprehendat quod 
for who 	may reprove 	what 

decretum-erit in parricidas reipublicae? 
shall have been decreed against the parricides of the republic? (I answer), 

Tempus, dies, fortuna, lubido cujus 
time, day. (occasion), fortune, the pleasure (caprice) of which 

moderatur gentibus. Quidquid evenerit, accidet
rules to nations,  whatsoever shall have oceurred, will happpen

det merito illis: caeterum, conscripti patres, 
deservedly to them : but [for the rest], conscript fathers. 

vos-considerate quid statuatis in alios. Omnia 
consider what you may resolve against others.  All 

mala exempla orta-sunt ex bonis initiis: sed ubi 
bad examples have arisen from good beginnings : but when 

imperium pervenit ad ignaros, aut minus bonos, 
authority comes to the ignorant, or less good, 

illud novum exemplum transfertur ab dignis 
that new example (precedent) is transferred from the worthy 

et idoneis, ad indignos et non-idoneos. Lacedaemonii, 
and fit, to the unworthy and unfit. The Lacedemonians, 

Atheniensibus devietis, 	imposuere triginta 
the Athenians having been conquered, placed-over (them) thirty 

viros, qui tractarent rempublicam. Hi primo coepere 
men, who might manage the republic, these at-first began 

necare quemque pessumum et invisum omnibus, 
to put-to-death every-one most-base and odious to all, 

indemnatum: populus laetari eo, et dicere 
uncondemned: the people (began) to rejoice so that, and 	to say 

fieri merito. 	Post ubi licentia 	crevit, 
(it) to be done deservedly.  After when 	misrule increased. 

paulatim interficere bonos et malos lubidinose, 
(by degrees) (they began) to kill the good and bad capriciously 

terrere caeteros metu. Ita civitas, oppressa 
to affright others by fear. Thus the state, oppressed 

servitute, dedit poenas stultae laetitiae. 	Cum 
by slavery, gave punishments of foolish gladness. When 

victor 	Sulla, nostra memoria, jussit Damasippum 
the conqueror Sylla, in our memory, ordered Damasippus 

et alios hujusmodi, qui creverant 	malo 
and others of this kind, who had increased by the misfortune 

reipublicae jugulari, quis landabat non factum
of the republic to be strangled, who did praise not the deed 

ejus? Aiebant, scelestos et factiosos homines, 
of him? 	They did say, wicked and factious men, 

qui exagitaverant rempublicam seditionibus 
who had harassed the republic by seditlons (to be) 

merito necatos. Sed ea res fuit initium magnae 
deservedly put-to-death.  But that thing was the beginning of great 

cladis. 	Namque uti quisque concupiverat domum 
slaughter.  For as every-one had desired a house 

aut villam, postremo aut vas 	aut vestimentum 
or a villa,  finnally either the vase (plate) or clothing 

alicujus, dabat operam, ut is 	esset in 
of any-one, he did give exertion, that that (persen) should be in 

numero proscriptorum. 	Ita illi, quibus mors 
the number of the proscribed. 	Thus they, to whom the death 

Damasippi fuerat 	laetitiae, ipsi trahebantur 
or Damasippus had been for gladness, themselves were dragged 

paulo post, neque fuit finis jugulandi, 
(to execution) a little after, neither 	was an end of strangling 

priusquam Sulla explevit omnes suos 
before-that Sylla filled all his-own (friends) 

divitiis. Atque ego vereor non hoc in Marco Tullio, 
with riches, And I fear 	not this in Marcus Tullius, 

neque his temporibus. 	Sed multa et varia 
Neither in these times. 	But 	many and various 

ingenia sunt in magna civitate. Aliquid falsum 
dispositions are in a great state.  Some (thing) false 

potest 	credi 	pro vero, alio tempore, 
can be believed for true, in another time, (under) 

alio consule, cui item exercitus sit in manu. 
another consul, to whom also an army may be in hand [entrusted].

Ubi consul 	eduxerit 	gladium per 
When the consul shall have drawn the sword by 

decretum senatus, hoc exemplo, quis statuet 
a deoree of the senate, from this precedent, who shall assign 

finem illi, aut quis moderabitur? 	Conscripti 
limit to him, or who shall restrain (him)? Conscript 

patres, nostri ma.jores neque unquam eguere consilii 
fathers, our ancestors neither ever wanted of councel 

neque andaciae: neque superbia obstabat, quo 
nor of boldness: 	neither pride did oppose, that 

minus-imitarentur 		aliena instituta, si modo 
they would less-imitate (not imitate) foreign institutes, if only 

erant proba. 	Sumpserunt arma atque militaria. 
they were good. 	They took arms and military 

tela ab Samnitibus: pleraque insignia magistratuum 
weapons from the Samnites:  most ensigns of magistrates 

ab Tuscis: 	postremo exsequebantur 
from the Tuscans:  finally they practiced 

summo 	studio domi, quod videbatur idoneum 
with the utmost zeal at home, what did seem fit 
[and best for their use]

ubique apud socios aut hostis (hostes): 
everywhere among allies or enemies: 

malebant imitari, quam invidere bonis. 
they had-rather to imitate, than to envy to the good, 
[they preferred imitating to envying what was good.]

Sed imitati 	morem Graeciae
But having imitated the custom of Greece

illo eodem tempore, animadvertebant 
in that same time, they did animadvert (punish)

verberibus in 	civis (cives), sumebant 
with stripes against citizens they did take 

summum supplicium de condemnatis. 	Postquam 
the utmost punishment of 	the condemned, 	After 

respublica adolevit, et factiones valuere 
the republic grew-up (flourished), and faction provailed 

multitudine civium, innocentes coepere circumveniri, 
by the multitude of citizens, the innoeent began to be beset, 

alia hujusmodi fieri: tunc Porcia lex, que 
other (things) of this kind to be done: then the Porcian law, and 

aliae leges, paratae-sunt, quibus legibus exsilium 
other laws, were prepared, by which laws exile 

permissum-est damnatis. 	Conscripti patres, ego 
was allowed 	to the condemned.  Conscript fathers, I 

puto hanc causam in-primis magnam, 	quo 
think this reason 	particularly great, in-order-that 

minus-capiamus novum consilium. 
we may less (not) take a new counsel, 
[Deviate from the counsel and usages or our forefathers.]

Profecto, virtus atque sapientia 
Indeed, virtue and wisdem 

fuit major in illis, qui fecere imperium tantum 
has been greater in those, who have made the govemment so-great 

ex parvis opibus quam in nobis, qui vix retinemus 
from small resources than in us, who scarcely retain 

ea bene parta. 	Igitur placet 	eos 
those (things) well acquired.  Therefore does it please (me) them 

	dimitti, 	et exercitum Catilinae 	augeri? 
to be dismissed, and 	the army of Catiline to be increased?

Minume : sed censeo ita: pecunias eorum 
By-no-means: but I think thus: the moneys (property) of them 

publicandas, ipsos habendos in vinculis per 
to-be-confiscated, themselves to-be-kept in 	bonds through 

municipia, quae maxume-valent 	opibus, neu 
the municipal-towns, which are-most-strong in resources, nor 

quis 	postea referat ad senatum, 
any-one afterwards may refer to the senate 
[nor may anyone here-after refer their case to the senate], 

neve agat 	cum 
nor may act (treat) with

populo de his: senatum existumare eum, qui
the people concerning them: the senate to think him, who 

fecerit 	aliter, facturum contra rempublicam et 
shall have done otherwise, about-to-do against the republic and 

salutem omnium. 
the safety of all. 

Postquam Caesar fecit finem dicendi, caeteri 
After Caesar 	made an end of speaking, the others

assentiebantur varie verbo, alius alii. 
did assent variously, in word, another (one) to another, 
[the others gave merely their verbal assent varliously to 
the opinion or each or those who had spoken.]

At Marcus Poreius Cato 
But Marcus 	Poreius Cato 

rogatus sententiam, habuit orationem 
being asked (his) 	opinion, had (delivered) a speech 


Conscripti patres, mens longe alia 	est mihi, 
Conscript fathers, a mind far other (different) is to me, 

cum considero res atque nostra pericula, et cum 
when I consider things and our dangers, and when 

ipse reputo mecum sententias nonnullorum. 
I myself 	revolve with me the opinions of some. 

Illi videntur mihi disseruisse de poena eorum, 
they seem to me to have discussed of the punishment of those, 

qui paravere bellum patriae, parentibus, 
who have prepared war to (against their) country, parents, 

suis aris atque focis: autem res monet magis 
their altars and hearths: but the thing advises rather 

cavere ab illis, quam consultare, quid statuamus 
to beware from them, than to deliberate, what we may determine 

in illos. Nam persequare alia maleficia 
against them. For you may persecute (punish other crimes 

tum, ubi 	faca-sunt nisi provideris, 	ne 
then, When, they have been done: unless you shall have provided, lest 

hoc accidat, implores judicia frustra, ubi 
this 	may happen, you may implore judgments in vain, when

evenit. 	Urbe 	capta, 	nihil 	reliqui 
It has happened. the city having been taken, nothing of remaining 

	fit 	victis. 	Sed per 
is made (nothing is left) to the vanquished, But by (in the name of) 

immortalis (immortales) Deos, ego appello vos, qui 
the immortal Gods, I address you, who 

semper fecistis pluris 	vestras domos, 
always have made of more (have valued more) your houses, 

villas, signa, tabulas, quam rempublicam: si vultis 
villae, statues, picturec, than the republic: if you will 

retinere ista cujuscumque modi sint, quae 
to retain these (things), of whatever kind they may be, which 

amplexamini; si 	praebere otium 
you embrace; 	[are so fond of] if [you wish] to afford leisure 

vestris voluptatibus; aliquando expergiscimini, 
to your pleasures;  sometime (at length) arouse 

et capessite 	rempublicam. 	Non-agitur 
and take-in-hand [and defend] the republic.  It is not acted 

de vectigalibus, non de 	injuriis 
(we are not treating) of taxes, not of the injuries 

sociorum: nostra libertas et anima est in dubio. 
of allies:  our liberty and life is in a doubtful (state).

Conscripti patres, saepenumero 	feci 	multa 
Couecript fathers, oftentimes I have made many 

verba. in hoc ordine: 
words in this order (house): 
[I have often spoken in the senate:] 

saepe questus-sum de luxuria atque avaritia 
often I have complained of the luxury and avarice 

nostrorum civium: que habeo multos mortalis (mortales) 
of our citizens and have many 	mortals 

adversos 	ea 	causa: 	qui fecissem 
adverse (to me) from that account: (I) who might have made (had made) 

unquam gratiam nullius delicti mihi atque meo 
ever indulgence of no fault to myself and to my 

animo, 	haud 
mind,  	not 
[I who never granted indulgence to myself for a fault,]

facile condonabam male-facta lubidini alterius. 
easily did pardon bad-deeds to the passion of another. 

Sed tametsi vos pendebatis ea 	parvi, 
But although you did esteem those (things) of little consequence 

tamen respublica erat firma: opulentia tolerabat 
yet the republic was strong:  opulence did support 

negligentiam. Vero nunc id agitur non, ne 
negligence, 	But [now] that is treated not, whether 

vivamus 	bonis an malis moribus; neque 
we may live (we live) with good or bad morals; 	neither 

quantum aut quam magnificum imperium 	Romani 
how-great or how magnificent the government of the Roman 

populi sit; sed an haec, cujuscumque modi 
people may-be; but whether these (things), of whatever kind 

videntur, sint futura nostra, an una nobis-cum, 
they appear, may-be about-to-be ours, 	or together 	with-us

of (belonging to) the enemies,
[Whether all thse things may belong to us, or together with 
ourselves belong to the enemies]

Quisquam hic nominat mihi mansuetudinem et misericordiam? 
(Does) any-one here name [to me] mildness and merey? 

Jampridem equidem amisimus vera vocabula. rerum; 
Long-since indeed we have lost the true titles of things; 

quia largiri aliena bona vocatur liberalitas ; 
because to bestow another's goods is called liberality; 

audacia malarum rerum, fortitudo; eo
boldness or (in) bad things, fortitude; 	therefore 

respublica est sita in extremo. 		Quoniam 
the republic is situate in extreme (danger). 	Since 

mores habent se ita, sint sane liberales 
manners have themselves so, let (them) be indeed liberal 

ex fortunis sociorum; sint misericordes 
out-of the fortunes or (our) allies let (them) be compassionate 

in furibus aerarii: ne illis largiantur 
towards the thieves of the treasury: not to them may they bestow 

nostrum sanguinem, 
our 	blood, 	[let them only not bestow our blood on them] 

et dum parcunt paucis (dat.) sceleratis, 	eant 
and while they spare a few wicked (men), they may go 

perditum omnis (omnes) 	bonos. 	Caius Caesar 
to destroy all the good.  Caius Caesar 

disseruit 	paulo ante, in hoc ordine, 	bene et 
has discussed a little before, in this order (house), well and 

composita de vita et morte; credo, existumans 
elegantly 	about life and death;  I believe, thinking 

ea. 	falsa, quae memorantur de inferis, 
those (things) false, which are related of the low (regions), [that] 

malos habere tetra, inculta, foeda, atque 
the bad to have (inhabit) noisome, 	waste filthy, 	[and] 

formidolosa loca, diverso itinere 	a bonis. 
dreadful places, in a different way (direction) from the good. 

Itaque 	censuit 	pecunias eorum 
Therefore he has decided the moneys (property) or them 

publicandas, ipsos habendos in custodiis 
to-be-confiscated, themselves to-be-kept in custodies (prison) 

per municipia; videlicet, ne, si sint Romae, 
through the municipal-towns; indeed, lest, if they may be at Rome, 

	eripiantur 	per vim, aut a popularibus 
they may be rescued through force, either by the accomplices 

conjurationis, aut a conducta multitudine. Quasi 
of the conspiracy, or by a hired multitude. As-if 

vero mali atque scelesti sint (sub.) tantummodo 
indeed bad and wicked (men) may be (are) 	only 

in urbe, 	et non per totam Italiam; aut 
in the city, and not through the whole Italy; or 

andacia non-possit plus ibi, ubi 		sunt 
boldness may not-be able (to do) more there, where (there) are 

minores opes ad-defendendum. Quare 
less resources to-defend [means of defend]. Wherefore

equidem hoc consilium est vanum, si metuit periculum 
indeed this advice is vain, if he fears danger 

ex illis. Sin solus timet non in tanto metu 
from them.  But-if (be) alone fears not in so-great fear 

omnium, refert me timere magis mihi, atque 
of all, it concerns me 	to hear the more for me, and 

vobis. 	Quare cum statuetis de Publio 
Wherefore when you shall determine concerning Publius 

Lentulo que caeteris; habetote pro certo, vos 
Lentulus and the others; 	have (it) for certain, [that] you 

simul 	decernere 		de exercitu Catilinae, 
at-the-time decree concerning the army of Catiline, 

et 	de 	omnibus 	conjuratis. 	Quanto 
and concerning all the conspirators, By how-much 

	attentius 		agetis ea, 	tanto 
the more-attentively (vigorouly) you shall do those (things), by so-much 

animus 	erit infirmior illis: si 	viderint 
mind (spirit) shall be weaker to them: If they shall have seen 

vos languere modo paululum, aderunt feroces. 
you to languish only a-little, they will be-present fierce. 
[The more vigorously you act, the more you will dispirit them; 
the more remissly you act, the more you will encourage them.]

Nolite existumare 		nostros majores fecisse rem- 
Be-unwilling to think [that] our ancestors to have made the 

publicam magnam ex 	parva armis. Si 
republic great from (being) small by arms [alone]. 	If 

res 	esset (imp. sub.) ita, nos haberemus eam 
the thing might be (were) 	so, we might have it 

multo pulcherrumam : 	quippe major 	copia 
by-much the most-fair (splendid) : 	for a greater abundance 

sociorum atque civium, praeterea armorum atque 
of allies and of citizens, moreover of arms and 

equorum, est nobis quam illis. 		Sed alia 
of horses, is to us than to them [our ancestors]. But other 

fuere, quae fecere illos magnos, quae sunt 
(things) were, which made them great, which are 

nulla nobis: 				industria domi; 
none to us [which we have not]: industry of (at) home; 

justum imperium foris; animus liber in consulendo; 
just government abroad ; a mind free in deliberating; 

neque obnoxius delicto, neque lubidini.  Pro his 
neither subservient to crime, nor to passion.  Instead-of these 

nos habemus luxuriam atque avaritiam: egestatem 
we have luxury and avarice: want 

publice, opulentiam privatim: landamus divitias, 
publicly, opulence privately:  we praise riches, 

sequimur inertia.m: 		nullum discrimen inter 
we fol1ow sloth: 	(we make) no differenee between 

bonos et malos; ambitio possidet omnia praemia 
the good and the bad; ambition possesses all the rewards 

virtutis. Neque mirum, ubi vos capitis consilium 
of virtue.  Nor (is it) wonderful, when you take counsel 

separatim, quisque 	sibi; 	ubi domi 	servitis 
separately, 	every one for himself; when at home you are slaves 

voluptatibus, hic pecuniae aut gratiae; 	ea 	fit, 
to pleasures, here to money or to interest; therefore it is made (happens),

	ut impetus 		fiat 	in vacuam 
that an attack may be made against the empty (defenceless) 

rempublicam. Sed ego omitto haec.  Nobilis-sumi 
republic.  But I omit these (things).  Most-noble 

cives conjuravere incendere patriam; 
citizens have conspired to burn (their) country; 

arcessunt ad bellum gentem Gallorum, infestis-sumam
they invite to war the nation of the Gauls, 	most-hostile 

Romano nomini; 	dux hostium 	est 
to the Roman name:  the leader of the enemies is 

supra caput 		cum exercitu: 	Vos 
over head (is close at hand) with an army:  (Do) you

etiam nunc cunctamini et dubitatis, quid faciatis 
even now hesitate and doubt, 	what you may do 

hostibus deprehensis intra moenia? Censeo misereamini; 
to enemies apprehended within the walls? I suppose you may pity (them);

adolescentuli homines deliquere per 
the very-young men have errored through 

ambitionem: atque dimittatis etiam armatos!
ambition: and you may dismiss (them) even armed! 

Nae ista mansuetudo et misericordia vertet in 
Truly that mildness and mercy will turn into 

miseriam vobis, si illi ceperint arma. Soilicet, 
ruin to you, if they shall have taken arms. Forsooth

res 	ipsa est aspera, sed vos timetis non 
the thing itself is harsh [dangerous], but you fear not 

eam! Immo, vero maxume; sed expectantes, alius alium,
It!  Nay, Indeed very-much, but awaiting, one another,

cunctemini inertia et mollitia. animi, 
you hesitate 	from indolence and effeminacy of mind. 

videlicet confisi immortalibus diis, qui saepe servavere 
Indeed trusting to the immortal gods, who often have preserved 

hanc rempublicam in maxumis periculis. Auxilia 
this 	republic in the greatest dangers. The help 

deorum 	parantur non votis, neque muliebribus 
of the gods are procured not by vows, nor womanish 

suppliciis; omnia cedunt prospere vigi­lando, 
supplications; all (things) yieId (ooour) prosperously by watching, 

agendo, consulendo bene. 	Implores 
by acting, by consulting, well. You may implore 

deos nequicquam, ubi tradideris (perf. sub.) 
the gods in-vain, 	when you may have delivered 

to socordiae 	atque ignaviae: sunt 
you to heartlessness (slothfulness) 	and indolence: they are 

irati que infesti. 	Apud nostros majores Aulus 
angry and hostile.  Among our ancestors Aulus 

Manlius Torquatus jussit 	filium 	necari 
Manlius Torquatus ordered (his) son to be put-to-death 

Gallico bello, quod is pugnaverat in hostem 
in the Gallio war, because he had fought against an enemy 

contra imperium: atque ille egregius adolescens dedit 
againet order:  and that excellent young-man gave 

poenas morte 	immoderatae fortitudinis. 
(suffered) punishments by death of (for his) excessive bravery 

Vos-cunctamini, quid statuatis de crudelissumis 
Do you-hesitate, what you may resolve concerning the most-cruel 

parricidis? Videlicet caetera vita eorum obstat 
parricides? Indeed the rest (former) life of them opposes (excuses)

huic sceleri! Verum parcite dignitati Lentuli, 
to this wickedness!  But spare to the dignity of Lentulus, 

si ipse pepercit unquam pudicitiae, si suae famae, 
if he has spared ever to chastity, if to his-own character, 

si ullis diis aut hominibus. Ignoscite adolescentiae 
If to any gods or to men. Pardon to the youth 

Cethegi, nisi fecit 	jam iterum bellum 
of Cethegus, unless he has made already again war (against his) 

patriae. Nam quid ego-loquar de Gabinio, Statilio, 
country. For what shall-I-speak of Gabinius, Statilio, 

Caepario, quibus si quidquam pensi 	fuisset 
Caeparius, to whom if any of consideration might have been 

(plup. sub.) unquam, habuissent non 
(had been) ever, they might have held not (had not held) 

ea consilia de republica ? 
those counsels concerning the republic? [Who if they ever had any
rellection, wouId not have entertained those designs against the republic.] 

Postremo, conscripti patres, si locus esset 
Lastly, conscript fathers, if place might be (if there were room)

peccato, mehercule, facile-paterer vos corrigi 
for error, [by Hercules,] I would easily suffer you to be corrected 

re 	ipsa, quoniam contemnitis verba. 	Sed 
by the thing itself, since you despise words. But 

sumus circumventi undique: Catilina urget 
we are beset on-every-side: Catline presses to (our) 

faucibus 	cum exercitu: alii hostes sunt intra 
jaws (closely) with an army: other enemies are within 

moenis, atque in sinu urbis. 	Neque potest 
the walls, and in the bosom of the city. 	Neither can 

quidquam 	parari neque consuli occulte: 	quo 
any (thing) be prepared nor be consulted secretly: therefore 

est properandum magis. 
it is	to-be-hastened the more. [Therefore speedy action is required.] 

Quare ego ita censeo. Cum respublica venerit 
Therefore I thus determine. Since the republic may have come (has come) 

(per. sub.) in maxuma pericula nefario consilio 
into the greatest dangers by the horrible counsels 

sceleratorum civium; que hi convicti-sint (perf. sub.) 
of wicked citizens; and these may have been convicted by the 

indicio 	Titi Vulturcii, et legatorum 	Allobrogum, 
information of Titus Vuturcius, and of the ambassadors 
of the Allobroges, 

que confessi-(sint) (perf. sub.) paravisse 
and may have confessed to have prepared 

caedem, incendia, que alia foeda atque crudelia 
murder, burnings, and other abominable and cruel 

facinora in 	civis (cives) que patriam; 
crimes against (their) citizens 	and ceountry; (that)

supplicium sumendum, more majorum, de 
punishment be-taken, by the custom of (our) ancestors, of (on those)

confessis, sicuti de 	manifestis 
having confessed, as of (those) manifest (clearly convicted)

capitalium rerum."
of capital things (crimes)."

Postquam Cato assedit, omnes consulares, 
Alter Cato sat-down, 	all the consular (men), 

que item magna pars senatas, landant sententiam 
and also a great part of the senate, praise the opinion 

ejus; ferunt virtutem animi ad coelum: 
of him;  bear (extol) the virtue of (his) mind to heaven: 

alii increpantes vocant alios timidos: Cato habetur 
others chiding call others fearful: Cato is had 

clarus atque magnus: decretum senati 
(accounted) renowned and great: a decree of the senate 

fit, sicut ille censuerat. Sed forte 	lubuit 
is made, as he had determined. But by chance it has pleased 

mihi, legenti multa, andienti multa praeclars facinora, 
to me, reading many, hearing many illustrious exploits, 

quae Romanus populus fecit domi que militiae, 
which the Roman people has done at-home and 	at war 

mari atque terra, attendere, quae res 
(abroad), by sea 	and 	by land, to consider, 	what thing 

sustinuisset 	maxume tanta negotia. 	Sciebam 
might have sustained chiefly so-great affair. 	I did know (them)

saepenumero contendisse 	parva manu cum 
oftentimes to have contended with a small band with 

magnis legionibus hostium: cognoveram bella gesta 
great legions of enemies:  I have known wars carried-on [by them]

parvis copiis cum opulentis 	regibus: 
with small forces with opulent (powerful) kings: 

ad hoc 	saepe toleravisse 
add to this [that they] often to have borne [have sustained]

violentiam fortunae: Graecos fuisse ante 
the violence of fortune: [that] the Greeks to have been [were] before 

Romanos facundia, Gallos gloria belli. 	Ac 
the Romans in eloquence, the Gauls in the glory of war. 	And 

constabat mihi, agitanti multa egregiam 
it was evident to me, discussing many (things), [that] the singular 

virtutem paucorum civium patravisse cuncta; 
virtue of a few citizen to have performed [performed] all (things);

que 	factum 	eo, uti paupertas 
and (it was) done (came to pass) by that, that poverty 

superaret (imp. sub.) divitias, paucitas multitudinem. 
might overcome (overcame) riches, fewness 	multitude. 

Sed postquam civitas corrupta-est luxu atque 
But after the state was corrupted by luxury 	and 

desidia, respublica sustentabat rursus vitia 
by inactivity, the republic did support again the vices of (its) 

imperatorum atque magistratuum sua magnitudine ; 
generals and 	magistrates from its-own greatness; 

ac sicuti parente 	effeta, sane haud quisquam 
and as-if the parent (having been) worn-out, indeed not any-one 

magnus virtute fuit Romae multis tempestatibus. 
great in virtue has been at Rome for many seasons (periods), 

Sed fuere mea memoria duo viri, Marcus Cato 
But (there) were in my memory two men, Marcus Cato 

et Caius Caesar, ingenti virtute, diversis moribus, 
and Caius Caesar, with (of) great virtue, with different manners, 

quos quoniam res obtulerat, fuit non 
whom since the thing (the subject) has presented, it has been not (my)

consilium praeterire silentio, quin 	aperirem 
design 	to pass-by in silenee, but (that) I might disclose 

naturam et mores utriusque, quantum possem 
the nature and manners of each, as-much-as I might be-able to

ingenio. Igitur genus, aetas, eloquentia fuere prope 
by ability. Therefore extraction, age, eloquence were nearly 

aequalia his; 	magnitudo animi par, item 
equal to these; (their) greatness of mind equal, likewise (their) 

gloria, sed alia alii. 	Caesar 
glory, but other (different) to the other (to each).  Caesar

habebatur magnus beneficiis ac munificentia, 
was had (accounted) 	great by kindnesses and munificence, 

Cato integritate vitae. 	Ille factus clarus 
Cato by integrity of life.  He (the former) (was) made renowned 

mansuetudine et misericordia; severitas addiderat 
by mildness and by compassion; severity had added 

dignitatem huic. Caeser adeptus-est gloriam 
dignity to this (the latter). Caesar obtained glory 

dando, sublevando, ignoscendo; Cato largiundo nihil. 
by giving, by relieving, by pardoning;  Cato by bestowing nothing. 

Perfugium miseris in altero pernicies 
A refuge to the wretched (was) in the other (one), destruetion 

malis in altero. 	Facilitas 	illius, 
to the bad in the other.  The easiness (of access ) of that (the former), 

constantia hujus landabatur. Postremo, Caesar 
the constancy or this (the latter) was praised,  Finally, Caesar 

induxerat in animum 	laborare, vigilare, 
had induced into (his) mind (had resolved) to labour, to watch, 

intentus 	negotiis amicorum, negligere sua, 
intent to (on) the affairs of  friends, to neglect his-own, 

denegare nihil, quod esset (imp. sub.) dignum dono; 
to deny nothing, which might be (was) worthy a gift; 

exoptabat sibi magnum imperium, exercitum, novum 
he did wish for himself great command, an army, a new 

bellum, ubi 		virtus posset 		enitescere. 	At 
war, where (his) valour might be-able to shine-forth.  But 

studium modestiae, decoris, sed maxuma severitatis, 
a zeal of (for) moderation, of propriety, but chiefly of strictness, 

erat Catoni. Certabat non cum divite divitiis, neque 
was to Cato. He did contend not with the rich in riches, neither 

cum factioso factione; sed cum strenuo virtute, 
with the factions in faction; but with the strenuous in virtue, 

cum modesto pudore, cum innocente abstinentia: 
with the modest in modosty, with the innocent in abstinence. [and purity] 

malebat esse bonus quam videri; 	ita, 
he had-rather to be good than to seem (so); thus, 

quo minus petebat gloriam, eo magis 
by what (how much) less he did seek glory, 	by that the more 

adsequebatur. 	Postquam, uti dixi, senatus discessit 
it did attend 	(him).  After, as I have said, the senate departed 

in 	sententiam Catonis: consul 	ratus 
into [adopted] the opinion of Cato: the consul having deemed 

optumum factu antecapere noctem, quae instabat, 
(It) 	best to be done to anticipate the night, which did press-on 

ne quid 				novaretur 	eo 
lest any (thing) might be renewed (might be changed) in the 

spatio, jubet trium viros parare, quae
space [or time], orders the triumviri (sheriffs) to prepare, what 

supplicium postulabat;   ipse, praesidiis 	dispositis, 
the punishment did require; he, the guards having been arranged, 

deducit Leutulum in carcerem ; idem fit caeteris 
leads-down Lentulus 	into prison; the same is done to the rest

per praetores. 	Est locus in carcere, quod 
by the pretors, 	There is a place in the prison, which 

appellatur Tullianum, depressus circiter duodecim 
called 	Tullianum, 	sunk about twelve 

pedes humi, ubi 	ascenderis 	paululum 
feet of (in) the ground, where you shall have ascended a little

ad laevam. Parietes atque camera insuper, vincta 
to the left.  Walls and a vault from above, bound 

lapideis fornicibus, muniunt eum undique: sed 
by stone arches, secure it on-every-side: but 

facies ejus est foeda atque terribilis incultu, 
the appearance of it is filthy and terrible from dirt [from neglect],

tenebris, odore. Postquam Lentulus 
darkness, [and] stench.  After that 	Lentulus 

demissus in eum locum, vindices capitalium 
was sent-down into that place, the avenger of capital 

rerum, 	quibus praeceptum-erat, fregere 
things (executioner), to whom it bad been commanded, broke (his) 

gulam laqueo. Ita ille patricius ex 
throat with a rope [strangled him]. Thus that patrician of 

clarissimi gente 	Corneliorum, qui habuerat 
the most-renowned nation (family) of the Cornelii, who had had 

consulare imperium Romae, invenit exitum vitae 
the consular authority of (at) Rome, found an end of life

dignum suis moribus que factis. 	Supplicium 
worthy his manners and deeds. 	Punishment 

sumptum-est eodem modo de 	Cethego, Statilio 
was-taken in the same manner of (on) Cethegus, Statilius, 

Gabinio, Cepario. 
Gabinius, Ceparlus. 

Dum ea geruntur Romae, Catilina 
While those (things) are carried-on at Rome, Catiline 

instituit duas legiones ex omni copis, quam ipse 
formed two legions out-of all the force, which he 

adduxerat, 	et Manlius habuerat; 
had led [had brought with him], and Manlius had had; 

complet cohortes pro numero militum; 
he fills-up the cohorts according-to [his] number of soldiers ] 

dein uti quisque voluntarius, aut 	ex sociis 
afterwards as each volunteer,  or [those] out-of the allies 

venerat in castra, distribuerat 	aequaliter; ac 
had come into the camp, he had distributed (them) equally; and 

expleverat legiones numero hominum 
he had filled-up the legions with the number of men in a 

brevi spatio; 		cum 		non-habuisset 
short space (of time) when (whereas) he might not have had (he had not) 

initio 	amplius 	duobus millibus. Sed circiter 
in the beginning more (than) two thousand. But about 

quarta pars ex omni copia instructa-erat militaribus 
a fourth part out-of all the force had been furnished with military 

armis; caeteri, ut casus armaverat quemque, portabant 
arms; the rest, as chance had armed each, 	did carry 

sparos aut lanceas, alii praeacutas sudes. 	Sed 
javelins or lances, some sharp-pointed stakes.  But 

postquam Antonius adventabat cum exercitu, Catilina 
after-that  Antony did approach with an army, Catiline 

	facere 			iter per 		montes: 		modo 
(began) to make (his) march through (over) the mountains: now

movere castra ad urbem, modo versus in Galliam; 
to move (his) camps to the city, now towards into Gaul; 

non dare occasionem pugnandi hostibus.
not to give [he did not give an] opportunity of fighting to the enemies 

Sperabat se habiturum propediem magnas copias, 
He did hope himself about-to-have shortly great forces, 

si 		socii 		patravissent 		incepta 	Romae. 
if (his) companions might have executed (their) undertakings at Rome. 

Interea, fretus opibus conjurationis, repudiabat
Meantime, relying to (on) the reoources of the conspiracy, he did reject 

servitia, cujus magnae copiae concurrebant 
slaves of which great forces (numbers) did run-together 

ad eum initio; simul videri 
to him in the beginning; at-the-same-time (thinking it) to seem 

alienum suis rationibus, communieaase causam civium 
foreign to his purposes, to have shared the cause of citizens 

cum fugitivis servis. Sed postquam nuncius pervenit 
with fugitive slaves.  But after-that a messenger arrived 

in castra, 	conjurationem 	patefactam 
into the camps, [that] the conspiracy (to be) is laid-open [was discovered] 

Romae ; 	supplicium 	sumptum de 
at Rome; [that] punishment [was] taken of (on) 

Lentulo et Cethego, que caeteris, quos 	memoravi 
Leotulus and Cethegus, and the others, whom I have mentioned 

supra; plerique, quos spes rapinarum, aut studium 
above; many, whom the hope of rapines, or zeal 

novarum rerum, 	illexerat, dilabuntur: Catilina 
of new things (change), had allured, slip-away, Catiline 

abducit reliquos, magnis itineribus per asperos 
leads-off the rest, by great marches through rugged 

montis (montes), in Pistoriensem agrum, eo consilio, 
mountains, into the Pistorian land, with this design, 

uti profugeret occulte per tramites in Galliam. At 
that he might escape secretly by by-ways into Gaul. But 

Quintus Metellus Celer existumans Catilinam, ex 
Quintus Metellus Celer thinking Catiline,  from 

difficultate rerum, 		agitare illa 
the difficulty of things (his circumstances), to agitate (project) those 

eadem, quae diximus supra, praesidebat cum 
same (things), which we have said above, did preside with 

tribus legionibus in Piceno agro. 	Igitur, ubi 
three legions in the Picene land, 	Therefore, when 

cognovit iter ejus ex perfugis, movit 
be knew [the direction or] the march or him from deserters, he moved 

castra propere, ac consedit sub radicibus ipsis 
camps hastily, and encamped under the roota themselves 

montium, qull descensus erat illi 
(at the foot) or the mountains, where a descent was to him (Catiline 

properanti in Galliam. Neque tamen Antonius aberat 
hastening into Gaul. 	Neither however Antony was distant 

longe, utpote qui 	sequeretur magno exercitu 
far, as (one) who might (did) follow with a great army 

expeditos 	in fugam 
the disencumbered (those light armed) into flight (for retreat)

aequloribus locis. Sed Catilina, postquam vidit sese 
in more-level places, But Catiline, after-that be saw himself 

clausum montibus atque copiis hostium, res adversas 
enclosed by mountalns and the forces of the enemies, things adverse 

in urbe, neque ullam spem fugae, neque praesidii, 
In the city, neither any hope of flight, nor of protection 

	ratus 	optumum 	factu 
[of succour], having deemed (it) the best [thing] to be done 
[he could do] 

tentare fortunam belli in tali re, 
to try the tortune of war in such a thing (crisis), 

statuit confligere 	Antonio quam-primum. 
reaolved to engage to (with) Antony as-first (as soon as possible) 

Itaque concione advocata, habuit 
Therefore an assembly having been called, he (delivered)

orationem hujuscemodi: 
a speech of this-kind: 

"Ego habeo compertum, milites! 	verba. 
"I have (it) found, soldiers I [that] words [do] 

non addere virtutem viris; neque exercitum 
not to add (give) valour to men; neither [is] an army 

fieri 	strenuum ex 	ignavo, neque fortem 
to be made vigorous from (being) indolent, nor brave 

ex timido, oratione imperatoris. 	Quanta andacia 
from fearful, by the speech of a general.  How-much courage 

inest animo cujusque, natura aut moribus, 
is-in to the mind of every-one, by nature or by dispositions, 

tanta solet patere in bello. Nequicquam 
so-much is-wont to lie-open (be displayed) in war. In-vain 

hortere, 	quem neque gloria neque pericula 
you may exhort (him), whom neither glory nor dangers 

excitant: timor animi officit auribus. Sed ego 
excite" cowardice of mind obstructs to (his) ears, But I 

advoeavi 	vos, 	quo 	monerem 	pauca, 
have assembled you, so-order-that I might advise a few (things), 

	simul, 	uti aperirem causam mei consilii 
at-the-same-time, that I might disclose the cause of my design. 

Milites, scitis quantam cladem socordia atque 
Soldiers, you know how-great a defeat the slothfulness 	and 

ignavia Lentuli attulerit ipsi que 
indolence of Lentulus may have brought (has brought) to himself and 

nobis, que quo modo, dum opperior praesidia 
to us, and in what manner, while I am-waiting-for reinforcements 

ex urbe, nequiverim (perf. sub.) proficisci 
out-of the city, I may have been-unable (I have been unable) to set-out 

in Galliam. Vero nunc omnes intelligitis juxta 
into Gaul, But now (you) all understand equally 

mecum in quo loco nostrae res sint. Duo 
with me in what situation our things may be (are), 	Two 

exercitus hostium, unus ab urbe, alter a Gallia. 
armies of enemies, one from the clty, the other from Gaul 

obstant: 	egestas frumenti atque aliarum rerum 
oppose (us): the want of corn and or other things 

prohibet esse diutius in his locis, si 	animus 
prevents (us) to be longer 	in these places, if (our) mind 

maxume-ferat,  				Iter 
may chiefly-bear (incline).   A way
[Even if our minds incline us that way.] 
est aperiundum ferro, quocunque placet ire. 
is to-be-opened by the sword, wheresoever it pleases (us) to go 

Quapropter moneo vos, uti sitis forti atque parato 
Therefore I advise you, that you may be with brave and prepared 

animo, et memineritis, cum inibitis praelium, 
mind, and will have remembered, when you will enter the battle, 

vos portare divitias, decus, gloriam, 
you to carry (that you carry) riches, honour, glory. 

praeterea libertatem atque patriam, In vestris dextris. 
besides liberty and country, so your right (hands).

Si vincimus, omnia erunt tuta nobis; 
If we conquer, all (things) shall be safe to us; 

commeatus abunde, municipia et coloniae patebunt. 
provisions abundantly, municipal-towns and colonies will be-open. 

Sin 	cesserimus metu, illa eadem fient 
But-if  we shall have yielded by fear, those same (things) wil1 be made 

advorsae.  Neque quisquam locus neque amicus 
adverse. 	Neither 	any place nor friend 

	teget, 		quem arma texerint non. 
will cover (protect) (him), whom arms may have covered not. 
[Who had not protected himself by his arms.]  

Praeterea, milites, eadem 
Besides, soldlers, the same 

necessitudo non-impendet 	nobis et illis. 	Nos 
necessity does not-impend to (over) us and them. 	We 

certamus pro patria, pro libertate, pro vita: 
contend for (our) country, for liberty, for life: 

est supervacaneum illis pugnare pro potentia 
it is 	useless 	to them to light for 	the power 

paucorum. 	Quo, 	memores pristinae virtutis, 
for a few.   Wherefore, mindfull of pristine 	valour, 

aggredimini 	andacius. 	Licuit 	vobis 
attack (them) the more-boldly.   It was lawful for you 

agere 	aetatem in exsilio cum summa turpitudine: 
to act (spend your) age in exile [with] the utmost baseness: 

nonnulli 	potuistis, 	bonis amissis, 
some (of you) have been-able, (your) goods having been lost 

exspectare alienas opes Romae: quia illa 
to look-to others' wealth at Rome: because those (things; 

videbantur foeda atque intoleranda viris, deerevistis 
did seem foul and intolerable [to men], you have resolved 

sequi haec, 	Est opus audacia 
to follow these (my interests). (There) is need of boldness, (abl.),

	si vultis relinquere haec. 			Nemo, nisi 
if you will to leave (to complete) these. 	No-one, unless 

victor, 		mutavit bellum pace. Nam sperare
conqueror, has changed war with (for) peace, For to hope 

salutem in fuga, tum avertere ab hostibus, arma 
safety in flight, then to turn-away from the enemies, the arms 

quis corpus tegitur, ea est vero dementia. 
by which the body is covered, 	that	is indeed madness. 

Maxumum periculum est semper iis in praelio, qui 
The greatest danger is always to those in battle, who 

timent maxume: andacia habetur pro muro. 
fear most: boldness is had (acoounted) for a wall. 

Milites, cum considero vos, et cum aestumo vestra 
Soldiers, When I consider you, and when I estimate your 

facta, magna spes victoriae tenet me. Animus, 
deeds, great hope of victory possesses me. (Your) mind, 

aetas, vestra virtus hortantur me: praeterea necessitudo, 
age, your valour encourage me: moreover, necessity,

quae facit etiam timidos fortis (fortes). Nam 
which makes even the cowardly brave. 	For 

angustiae loci prohibent, ne multitudo 	hostium 
the defiles of the place prohibit, lest the multitude of the enemies

queat circumvenire. 	Quod si fortuna inviderit 
may be-able to surround (us). But if fortune shall have envied 

vestrae virtuti, cavete, ne inulti amittatis 
to your 	valour, beware, lest unrevenged you may lose 

animam; neu capti, trucidemini, sicuti pecora, 
life; nor taken, you may be slaughtered, as cattle, 

potius quam 	pugnantes more virorum, 
rather than fighting in the manner of men, 

relinquatis cruentam atque luctuosam victoriam 
you may leave a bloody and mournful 	victor, 

hostibus. " 
to the enemies," 

Ubi dixit haec, commoratus paululum, 
When be said these (words), having delayed a little, 

jubet signa canere, 		atque deducit ordines in 
he orders the trumpets to sound, and leads-down the ranks to 

aequum locum: dein, equis omnium remotis, 
a level place: then, the horses 	all of having been removed, 

quo amplior animus esset militibus, 
in-order-that a greater mind (spirit) might be to the soldiers, 

periculo exaequato, ipse pedes instruit exercitum 
the danger having been equalled, he on-foot arranges the army 

pro 	loco 	atque copiis. Nam, uti planities 
according-to the situation and forces. For, as a plain 

erat inter montis (montes) sinistros, et aspera rupes
between the mountaius on-the-left, and a rugged rock 

ab dextera, constituit octo cohortes in fronte; 
from the right, he placed eight cohorts in front ; 

collocat reliqua signa arctius in 
he arranges the remaining standards (divisions) more-closely in 

subsidiis.  Subducit ab his in primam aciem, 
reserves.  He draws-out from these into the first line, 

omnis (omnes) lectos, centuriones, et evocatos, 
all the chosen, the ceuturions, and (those) called-out (veteran),

praeterea quemque optume armatum ex 
besides every beat armed (man) of 

gregariis militibus: jubet Caium Manlium curare 
in the common soldiers: be orders Caius Manlius to command on 

dextra parte, quemdam Faesulanum in sinistra: 
the right part (wing), 	a certain Faesulan on the left. 

ipse adsistit cum libertis et colonis 
he stands with the freedmen and colonists [of Sylla's army] 

propter aquilam, quam Caius Mariua dicebatur habuisse 
near the eagle, which Caius Marius was said to have had 

in exercitu Cimbrico bello. At ex altera parte 
in (his) army in the Cimbrian war. 	But from (on) the other side 

Caius Antonius, aeger pedibus, permittit exercitum 
Caius Antony, diseased in feet, commits the army 

Marco Petreio, 	legato, quod nequibat adesse 
to Marcus Petreius, (his) lieutenant, because he was-unable to be-present 

	praelio. Ille 	locat veteranas cohortes, 
to (at) the battle, 	He (Antony) places the veteran cohorts, 

quas conscripserat causa tumulti (tumultus), 
Which he had levied by cause (on account) of the tumult, 

in fronte, caeterum exercitum post eas, in subsidiis. 
in the front, the rest-of the army behind those, in reserves. 

Ipse circumiens equo, nominans unumquemque, 
himself (Petreius) going-about on horse, naming each-one, 

appellat, hortatur, rogat, 	uti meminerint 
addresses, encourages, asks (them), that they 
may have remembered (to remember) 

   se 	cernere contra inermes latrones, 
themselves to contend against unarmed robbers, 

pro patria, pro liberis, pro suis aris atque 
for [their] country, for [their] children, for their altars and 

focis. Militaris homo, quod fuerat tribunus, 
hearths. (This) military man, because he had been tribune, 

aut praefectus, aut legatus, aut praetor, amplius 
or prefect, or lieutenant, [or pretor,] more (than) 

triginta annos cum magna gloria in exercitu, noverat 
thirty years with great glory in the army, had known 

plerosque ipsos, que fortia facta eorum; accendebat 
most-of 	them, and the brave deeds of them; he did kindle 

animos militum commemorando ea. Sed ubi, 
the spirits of the soldiers by recounting 	those (things), But when, 

omnibus rebus exploratis, Petreius dat signum 
all things having been explored, [Petreius] gives the signal 

tuba, 	jubet cohortes incedere paullatim. 
by trumpet, (and) orders the cohorts to sdvance a little. 

Exercitus hostium facit idem. Postquam ventum est 
The army or the enemies does the same.  After it was come 

eo, unde praelium posset committi a 
they came) there, where 	the battle might be engaged-in by 

ferentariis, concurrunt maxumo clamore, infestis 
be light-armed, they rush with the greatest shout, with hostile 

signis; omittunt pila; 		res geritur gladiis. 
standards; cast-aside the javelins; the affair is-carried-on with swords, 

Veterani, memores pristinae virtutis, 
The veterans, mindful of (their) pristine valour, (began) 

	instare acriter, cominus; 		illi haud timidi 
to press-on vigorously, hand-to-hand; they (the others) not fearful 

resistunt: 	certatur maxuma vi. 	Interea 
resist: 	it is contended with the greatest force. 	Meantime 

Catilina 	versari cum expeditis in prima. 
Catiline 	(began) to be occupied with the light-armed in the first 

acie: succurrere 		laborantibus, 
line; to relieve (to those] labouring (hard-pressed), 

accersere integros pro seuciis ; providere 
to summon (fresh (men) instead-of the wounded; to provide for 

omnia; 		ipse pugnare multum; 	saepe 
all 	(things);   himselt to fight 	much; 	often 

ferire hostem; exsequebatur 	simul 	officia 
to strike the enemy; 	he did discharge at-the-same-time the duties

	strenui militis et boni imperatoris. 	Ubi 
of a vigorous soldier and of a good commander. 	When 

	Petreius videt Catilinam tendere magna 	vi, 
Petreius 	sees  Catiline to strive with great force, 

contra 	ac 	ratus-erat, 	inducit 	praetoriam 
otherwise than be had supposed, he leads-in the pretorian 

cohortem in medios hostis (hostes), interficit 
cobort into the middle-of the enemies, 	kills 

que eos perturbatos atque alios resistentes 
both those disordered and others 	resisting 

alibi: 	deinde aggreditur caeteros utrimque 
elsewhere: afterwards he attacks the rest on-both-sides 

ex lateribus. 	Manlius et Faesulanus pugnantes 
of the flanks. Manlius and the Foesulanus fighting 

in primis 	cadunt. 
in the first (the van) fall.  [Fell fighting among the first.] 

Postquam Catilina videt 	copias fusas que se 
After-that Catiline saw (his) forces routed and himself 

relictum cum paucis, memor generis atque suae 
left with a few, mindful or (his) race and his 

pristinae dignitatis, incurrit in confertissumos hostes, 
ancient 	dignity, he rushes into the thickest 	enemies, 

que ibi pugnans 	confoditur. 	Sed, praelio 
and 	there fighting is run-through.  But, 	the battle 

	confecto, 	tum vero 	cerneres 	quanta. 
having been finished, then in-truth you might perceive how-great 

audacia, que quanta vis animi, fuisset (pl. sub.) 
boldness, and how-great strength of mind, might have been (had been) 

in exercitu Catilinae. 	Nam quisque, anima 
in the army of Catiline.  For every-one, (his) life 

amissa, 		fere tegebat corpore 
being lost, almost (for the most part) did cover with (his) body

locum, quem vivus 	ceperat 	pugnando. 
the place, which (when) alive 	he had taken in fighting. 

Autem pauci, quos 	medios, praetoria cohors 
But as few, whom (being) middle, the pretorian cohort 

disjecerat, conciderant paulo diversius, 
had dispersed, had fallen a little more differently [more scattered] 

sed omnes tamen 	adversis vulneribus. 
but 	all 	however 	with front 	wounds. 

Vero Catilina repertus-est inter cadavera. 
But Catiline was found among the dead-bodies of (his) 

hostium longe a suis, 	etiam spirans paululum, 
enemies far from his own (men), even breathing a little, 

que retinens vultu ferociam 	animi, 
and 	retaining in [his] face 	the fierceness of mind, 

quam vivus habuerat. 	Postremo, quisquam 
which (when) alive he had had.  Finally, any-one 

ingenuus civis ex omni copia, neque captus-est 
free-born citizen of all the force, neither was taken 

in praelio, neque in fuga. Ita cuncti pepercerant 
in the battle, nor so the flight. So all had spared

suae que vitae hostium justa. 
to their-own and the life of enemies equally. 
[so little did all spare eithor their own life, or that of the enemy.]

Neque, tamen,  exercitus Romani populi adeptus-erat laetam 
Neither, however, the army of the Roman people had obtained a joyful 

aut incruentam victoriam. Nam quisque strenuissimus 
or bloodless 	victory, 	For 	each braveness (man) 

aut occiderat 	in praelio, 	aut 
either had fallen [in] the engagement, or 

discesserat graviter vulneratus. 	Autem multi, 
had departed severely wounded. 	But many, 

qui processerant e castris gratia 
who had proceeded from the camps by favour (for the sake) 

visundi aut spoliandi, volventes cadavera, alia
of going-to-see or despoiling, rolling the dead-bodies, some 

reperiebant amicum, pars hospitem, aut cognatum. 
did discover a friend, 	part a guest, or a relation. 

	Fuere item, 	qui cognoscerent (imp. sub.) 
(There) were likewise (some), who might know (did recognise) 

suos inimicos. 	Ita laetitia, moeror, luctus, 
their-own enemies.  Thus gladness, sorrow, grief, 

atque gaudia varie-agitabantur per omnem exercitum. 
and joys were variously-mixed (exhibited) throughout the whole army.