Chapter LXXXII - APPENDIX, Sections 800-870
RULES OF SYNTAX.
Subject and Predicate.
The subject of a finite verb is in the nominative. Thus, ἡ οἰκίᾱ θύρᾱς ἔχει,
the house has doors.
The subject of the infinitive is in the accusative; but it is generally omitted when it is the same as
the subject or the object (direct or indirect) of the leading verb. See 461, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7.
A verb agrees with its subject nominative in number and person; but a nominative in the neuter plural
regularly takes a singular verb. Thus, τὰ πλοῖα μῑκρὰ ἦν,
the boats were small.
With verbs signifying to be, become, appear, be named, chosen, made, thought, or regarded,
and the like, a noun or adjective in the predicate is in the same case as the subject. Thus,
ἡ εἰσβολὴ ἦν ὁδὸς ἁμαξιτός.
The pass was a wagon road,
ὁ ποταμὸς καλεῖται Μαρσύᾱς.
The river is called Marsyas.
A noun annexed to another noun to describe it, and denoting the same person or thing, agrees with it in
case. This is called apposition, and the noun thus used is called an appositive. Thus, Κῦρος, ὁ τοῦ Δᾱρείου υἱός,
Cyrus, the son of Darius, was a Persian.
Adjectives agree with their nouns in gender, number, and case. This applies also to the article and to
adjective pronouns and participles. Thus, ἡ ὀδος στενὴ ἦν,
the road was narrow,
ἐπορεύοντο οἱ Ἕλληνες τὴν ἡμετέραν ἁρπάζοντες,
The Greeks advanced ravaging our land.
An adjective or participle, generally with the article, may be used as a noun, Thus,
the enemy, τό κωλῦον,
the hindrance, κακόν,
Proper names may take the article. Thus, αἱ τοῦ Κύρου κῶμαι,
the villages of Cyrus.
Abstract nouns often take the article. Thus, ἡ ἀλήθεια,
Nouns with a possessive pronoun take the article when they refer to definite individuals, but not
otherwise. Thus, ὁ ἐμὸς πατήρ,
my father, but ἐμὸς φίλος
a friend of mine.
The article is often used where we use a possessive pronoun, to mark something as belonging to a
person or thing mentioned in the sentence. Thus, Κῦρος ἐπιβουλεύσει τῷ ἀδελφῷ,
Cyrus will plot against his brother.
An adverb, a preposition with its case, or any similar expression may be used with the article to qualify a
noun, like an attributive adjecctive. Here a noun denoting men or things is often omitted. Thus, οἱ οἴκοι ἐχθροί,
his enemies at home, οἱ παρὰ βασιλέως ἄγγελλοι,
the messengers from the king,
those at home, οἱ ἀμφὶ Κῦρον,
Cyrus and his followers.
An attributive adjective, or equivalent expression, which qualifies a noun with the article,
commonly stands between the article and the noun. But the noun with the article may be followed by the adjective with the
article repeated; here the first article is sometimes omitted. Thus, ἡ Ἑλληνικὴ φυλακή,
ἡ φυλακη ἡ Ἑλληνικη,
or φυλακη ἡ Ἑλληνικη,
the Greek garrison,
ἡ εἰς τό πεδιον εἰσβολη,
or ἡ εἰσβολη ἡ εἰς τό πεδιον,
εἰσβολη ἡ εἰς τό πεδιον,
the pass leading into the plain.
When an adjective either precedes the article, or follows the noun without taking an article,
it is always a predicate adjective. Thus, μῑκραὶ αἱ οἰκίαι ἦσαν,
αἱ οἰκίαι μῑκραὶ ἦσαν,
the houses were small.
When a demonstrative pronoun agrees with a noun, it takes the article, and stands in the predicate position. See 158.
In Attic prose the article retains its original demonstrative force chiefly in the expression
ὁ μέν . . . ὁ δέ,
the one. . . the other. ὁ ὁδέ,
etc., sometimes means, and he, etc.,
even when no ὁ μέν
precedes. Thus, τοὺς μὲν ἀρέκτεινε, τοὺς, δ᾿ ἐξέβαλεν,
some he slew, others he banished, οἱ δὲ ταῦτα ἔλεξαν τοῖς στρατιώταις,
and they (the generals) told
it to the soldiers.
The nominatives of the personal pronouns are seldom used, except for emphasis. See 436.
The personal pronoun of the third person, οὗ, οἷ, ἕ,
etc., is generally an
indirect reflexive in Attic prose, i.e. it is used in a dependent clause to refer to the subject of the leading verb. See 437.
has three uses: in all its cases it may mean self; when preceded by the article it means same;
in its oblique cases it may mean him, her, it, them. See 160.
The reflexive pronouns refer to the subject of the clause in which they stand. Sometimes in a dependent
clause they refer to the subject of the leading verb, i.e. they are indirect reflexives. See 446.
The possessive pronouns (448) are generally equivalent to the possessive genitive (841, 1) of the personal
pronouns. Thus, ὁ ἐμὸς πατήρ = ὁ πατήρ ἐμοῦ,
that, is used of something remote; ὅδε,
this, of something near or
is used in referring to something that has already been mentioned; ὅδε,
in referring to something which is about to be mentioned. See 159.
The interrogative τίς
(353), who? what? may be either substantive or
adjective. Thus, τίς τοῦτο λέγει;
who says this? τίνας ἄνδρας εἶδον;
what men did I see?
may be used both in direct and in indirect questions. Thus, τίς ὁ θόρυβός ἐστι;
what is the disturbance? ἐρωτᾷ τίς ὁ θόρυβός ἐστι,
he asks what the disturbance is.
The indefinite τίς
(354) may be either substantive or adjective. Thus,
τοῦτο λέγει τις,
or ἄνθρωπος τις τοῦτο λέγει,
somebody says this.
is sometimes nearly equivalent to English a or an. Thus, εἶδον ἄνθρωπόν τινα,
I saw a certain man, or I saw a man.
A relative agrees with its antecedent in gender and number, but its case depends on the construction of
the clause in which it stands. Thus, ἐξελαύνουσιν ἐπὶ τὸν εὐφράτην ποταμὸν, οὗ ἦν τὸ εὖρος τέτταρα στάδια,
they marched on to the Euphrates, the breadth of which was four stades.
The antecedent of a relative may be omitted when it can easily be supplied from the context, especially
if it is indefinite. Thus, καταπράξω ἐφ᾿ ἃ στρατεύομαι,
I shall accomplish (the objects) for which I am
taking the field.
When a relative would naturally be in the accusative as the object of a verb, it is generally assimilated
to the case of the antecedent if this is a genitive or dative. Thus, ἄνδρες ἄξιοί εἰσι τῆς ἐλευθερίᾱς ἡς κέκτηνται,
they are men worthy of the freedom which they have.
The antecedent is often attracted into the relative clause, and agrees with the relative. Thus,
ἀπέπεμψεν ὃ εἶχε στράτευμα,
he despatched what forces he had.
Nominative and Vocative Cases.
The nominative is used chiefly as the subject of a finite verb, or in the predicate after verbs signifying
to be, become, etc. See 800, 803.
The vocative, with or without ὦ,
is used in addressing a person or
thing. Thus, ἡ ὁδος, ὦ Κῦρε, ἄγει εἰς πεδίον καλόν,
the road, Cyrus, leads into a beautiful plain,
The direct object of the action of a transitive verb is put in the accusative. Thus,
he has a sling.
Any verb whose meaning permits it may take an accusative of kindred signification.
This accusative repeats the idea already contained in the verb, and may follow intransitive as well as transitive verbs.
It is called the cognate accusative. Thus, πολεμεῖ ἄδικον πόλεμον,
he wages an unjust war,
τί σε ἠδίκησα;
what wrong have I done you?
The accusative of specification may be joined with a verb, adjective, noun, or even a whole
sentence, to denote a part, character, or quality to which the expression refers. Thus, τὰ πολέμια ἀγαθός,
skilled in matters pertaining to war, ὁ ποταμὸς ἐστι τὸ εὖρος πλέθρου,
the river is one hundred feet in width.
An accusative in certain expressions has the force of an adverb. Thus,
τὰ πάντα νῑκῶσι,
they are completely victorious, τί δεῖ αὐτοὺς λύειν τὴν γέφῡραν,
why need they destroy the bridge?
The accusative may denote extent of time or space. Thus, ἐνταῦθα μένει ἡμέρᾱς ἑπτά,
he remained there a week, ἐπορεύοντο σταθμοὺς πέντε,
they proceeded five days journey.
The accusative follows the adverbs of swearing νη
by. An oath introduced by νη
is affirmative; one introduced by μα
Thus, νὴ Διὰ,
yes, by Zeus! μὰ τοὺς θεοὺς ὀυκ αὐτοὺς διώξω,
by Heaven, I will
not pursue them!
Verbs signifying to ask, demand, teach, remind, clothe, unclothe, conceal, deprive, and take away may take
two object accusatives. Thus, ἡγεμόνα αἰτεῖτε Κῦρον,
ask Cyrus for a guide,
τοὺς παῖδας σωφροσύνην διδάσκουσι,
they teach the lads self-control,
ἀναμνήσω γὰρ ὑμᾶς τοὺς κινδύνους,
I will remind you of the dangers,
τὸ χρήματα Κῦρον ὀυκ ἔκρυπτε,
he did not conceal his possessions from Cyrus,
τοὺς ἄνδρας ἀπεστερήκαμεν τὴν ναῦν,
we have robbed the men of their ship.
Verbs signifying to do anything to or to say anything of a person or thing take two accusatives.
Thus, τοὺς φίλους κακόν τι ἐργάσεσθε,
you will do your friends some harm.
Verbs signifying to name, choose or appoint, make, think or regard, and the like, may take a
predicate accusative besides the object accusative. Thus, πατέρα Ξενοφῶντα ἐκάλουν,
Xenophon "father", φίλον ποιήσωμεν τοῦτον,
let us make him our friend,
τὸν σατράπην φίλον οὐ νομιεῖ,
he will not regard the satrap as a friend.
A noun in the genitive may limit the meaning of another noun. This is called the attrributive genitive
and expresses various relations, most of which are denoted by of or by the possessive case in English. Thus:
1. Possession or other close relation, as τὰ βασιλέως βασίλεια,
the Kings palace. The Possessive Genitive.
2. The Subject of an action or feeling, as ὁ τῶν βαρβάρρων φόβος,
the fear of the barbarians,
i.e. the fear which they felt. The Subjective Genitive,
3. The Object of an action or feeling, as ὁ τῶν Ἑλλήνων φόβος,
the fear of the Greeks,
i.e. the fear which they inspired. The Objective Genitive.
4. Material or Contents, including that of which anything consists, as πέντε μναῖ ἀργυρίου,
five minas of silver,
Genitive of Material.
5. Measure, of space, time, or value, as τριῶν ἡμερῶν ὁδός,
a journey of three days,
πέντε μηνῶν μισθός,
five months pay. Genitive of Measure.
6. Cause or origin, as μεγάλων ἀδικημάτων ὀργη,
anger at great offenses. The causal Genitive.
7. The whole, after nouns denoting a part, as διὰ μέσου τῆς πόλεως,
through the middle of the city.
The partitive Genitive
The partitive genitive (841, 7) may follow all nouns, pronouns, adjectives (especially superlatives),
participles with the article, and adverbs, which denote a part, thus, τίς τῶν Ἑλλήνων;
who of the
Greeks? πάντων πάντα κράτιστος,
best of all in everything, ὑμῶν ὁ βουλόμενος,
whoever of you wishes, τῑμᾶται μάλιστα τῶν Ἑλλήνων,
he is honored more than any other Greek.
Verbs signifying to be or become and other copulative verbs may have a predicate genitive expressing any
of the relations of the attributive genitive (841). thus, τίνος ἐστὶν ὁ ἵππος;
who owns the horse?
ὁ Χάλος ἐστὶ τὸ εὖρος πλέθρου,
the Chalus is one hundred feet broad,
ἦν δὲ καὶ οὗτος τῶν Μίλητον πολιορκούντων,
he too was one of these who were besieging Miletus.
Any verb may take a genitive if its action affects the object only in part. This principle applies especially
to verbs signifying to share (give or take a part) or to enjoy. Thus, λαμβάνουσι τοῦ βαρβαρικοῦ στρατεύματος,
they take a part of the barbarian force, τῶν ἐπιτηδείων μετέσχετε,
you had your share of provisions.
The genitive follows verbs signifying to take hold of, touch, claim, aim at, hit, attain, miss, make trial of,
begin. Thus, ἔλαβον τῆς ζώνης,
they took hold of his girdle, ὀυχ ἅπτεται τῆς κάρφης τὸ ὕδωρ,
the water does not touch the hay, οὗτος αυτοῦ ἥμαρτε,
this one missed him,
ἦρχε τοῦ λόγου ὧδε,
he began his speech as follows.
The genitive follows verbs signifying to taste, smell, hear, perceive, comprehend, remember, forget, desire,
care for, spare, neglect, wonder at, admire, despise. Thus, οὔποτε ἡδίονος οἴνου γέγευμαι,
I have never tasted finer wine, θορύβου ἤκουσε,
he heard a noise, τούτων μέμνησθε;
do you remember this? τῶν στρατιωτῶν ἐπεμελεῖτο,
he looked out for his men,
μὴ ἀμελῶμεν ἡμῶν αὐτῶν,
let us not neglect ourselves.
The genitive follows verbs signifying to rule, lead, or direct. thus, τῶν ὁπλῑτῶν ἄρχει,
he commands the hoplites, Κλέαρχος τοῦ δεξιοῦ κέρως ἡγεῖται,
Clearchus leads the right wing.
Verbs signifying fullness and want take the genitive of material (841, 4). Those signifying to fill take the
accusative of the thing filled and the genitive of material. thus, οὐ στρατιωτῶν ἀπορῶ,
I am not in need of men,
τὰς διφθερας ἐπιμπλασαν χορτου κουφου,
they filled the skins with dry grass.
The genitive (as ablative) may denote that from which anything is separated or distinguished. On this
principle the genitive follows verbs denoting to remove, restrain, release, cease, fail, differ, give up, and the like. thus,
διέσχον ἀλλήλων ὡς τριάκοντα στάδια,
they were about thirty furlongs distant from one another,
ἐπέσχον τῆς πορείᾱς,
they desisted from marching, πολέμου ἡδέως παύσεται,
he will be glad to stop fighting.
The genitive follows verbs signifying to surpass and be inferior, and all others which imply comparison.
thus, οὕτως ἂν περιγένοιτο τῶν ἐχθρῶν,
he would thus get the better of his enemies,
ὑστέρησε τῆς μάχης ἡμέραις πέντε,
he was five days too late for the battle.
The genitive often denotes a cause, especially with verbs expressing emotions, such as
admiration, wonder, affection, hatred, pity, anger, envy, or revenge. Sometimes it denotes the source. thus,
τῆς ἐλευθερίας ὑμᾶς εὐδαιμονίζω,
I count you happy because of your freedom,
τοῖς θεοῖς χάριν ἔχουσι τῆς νίκης,
they are grateful to the gods for victory,
τούτων ἐμοὶ χαλεπαίνετε,
you are angry with me for this,
ἤκουσε ταῦτα τοῦ ἀγγέλλου,
he heard this from the messenger.
The genitive often depends on a preposition included in a compound verb. thus,
τῶν ἄλλων προτῑμήσει,
he will honor you above the rest,
καταψηφίζονται αὐτοῦ θάνατον,
they condemn him to death
(literally, they vote death against him).
The genitive may denote the price or value of a thing. thus,
how much do you charge for your lessons?
(literally, for what price do you teach?), φιάλη χρῡσῆ ἀξίᾱ δέκα μνῶν,
drinking-cup worth ten minas, φίλος πολλοῦ ἄξιος,
a friend worth much ( ie. of great value).
The genitive may denote the time within which anything takes place. thus,
ὡρμᾶτο τῆς νυκτός,
he set out in the night,
ταῦτα τῆς ἡμέρᾱς ἐγένετο,
this happened during the day.
The objective genitive follows many verbal adjectives. These are chiefly kindred (in meaning or derivation)
to verbs which take the genitive. Thus, ἔμπειροι γὰρ ἦσαν τῆς χώρᾱς,
they were familiar with the country (845),
τῆς χώρᾱς ἐγκρατεῖς,
masters or rulers of the land (847),
κῶμαι μεσταὶ σίτου,
villages abounding in supplies (848).
The genitive follows many adverbs, chiefly adverbs of place and those derived from adjectives
which take the genitive. thus, πέρᾱν τοῦ εὐφράτου,
across the Euphrates,
εἴσω τῆς πόλεως,
within the city,
ἐγγὺς τοῦ παραδείσου,
near the park,
οἱ ἐμπείρως Κύρου ἔχοντες,
those who are acquainted with Cyrus.
A noun and a participle not grammatically connected with the main construction of the sentence
may stand by themselves in the Genitive Absolute. See 516.
Adjectives and adverbs of the comparative degree take the geniitive (without ἠ,
thus, κακίους τῶν ἄλλων,
more cowardly than the rest,
θᾶττον τῶν ἵππων ἔτρεχον,
they ran more swiftly than the horses.
The indirect object of the action of a transitive verb is put in the dative. this object is generally introduced
in english by to. thus, δίδωσι μισθὸν τῷ στρατεύματι,
he gives pay to the army.
Certain intransitive verbs take the dative, many of which in english may have a direct object without to.
The verbs of this class which are not translated with to in english are chiefly those signifying to benefit, serve, obey, defend, assist,
please, trust, satisfy, advise, exhort, or any of their opposites; also those expressing friendliness, hostility, blame, abuse, repoach,
envy, anger, threats. Thus, οἱ πρόσθεν ἡμῖν βοηθήσαντες,
those who have previously helped us,
πείθεται τῷ στρατηγῷ,
he obeys his commander,
πιστεύουσι τῷ Κύρῳ,
they trust Cyrus,
they exhorted one another,
ὠργίζοντο ἰσχῡρῶς τῷ Κλέαρχῳ,
they were excessively angry with Clearchus.
The person or thing for whose advantage or disadvantage anything is or is done is put in the dative.
This dative is generally introduced in english by for. Thus,
ἄλλο στράτευμα Κύρῳ συνελέγετο ἐν Χερρονήσῳ,
another force was collected for Cyrus in the Chersonese,
ἐμοὶ κακὸν βουλεύεις,
you are plotting harm against me. Dative of advantage or Disadvantage.
The dative with εἰμι, γίγνομαι,
and similar verbs may denote the possessor.
thus, στρατιῶται Κύρῳ ἦσαν ἀγαθοί,
Cyrus had brave soldiers. Dative of the Possessor.
The dative follows many adjectives and adverbs, and some verbal nouns of kindred meaning with the
verbs of 860 and 861. Thus, τῷ ἐμῷ ἀδελφῷ πολέμιος, ἐμοὶ δὲ φίλος καὶ πιστός,
hostile to my brother, but friendly and faithful to me,
πηλὸς ταῖς ἁμάξαις δυσπόρευτος,
mire hard for the wagons to get through.
The dative is, used with all words implying likeness or unlikeness, agreement or disagreement, union, or
approach. This includes verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and nouns. thus,
ἡ πορείᾱ ὁμοίᾱ φυγῇ ἐγίγνετο,
their march came to be like flight,
Μαρσύᾱς ἀπόλλωνι ἤρισε,
Marsyas contended with Apollo,
ἐπολέμει τοῖς θρᾳξί,
he carried on war with the Thracians,
they will follow Cyrus,
ἅμα τῇ ἡμέρᾳ,
πλησαίζει τοῖς πολεμίοις,
he approaches the enemy.
The dative follows many verbs compounded with ἐν, σὺν,
and some compounded with πρός, παρά, περί,
thus, τοῖς στρατιώταις φόβον ἐμποιεῖ,
he inspires his soldiers with fear,
συμπέμπει τῷ στρατηγῷ ἄλλους στρατιώτᾱς,
he sends other soldiers with the general,
he plots against Cyrus.
The dative is used to denote cause, manner, and means or instrument. Τhus,
φιλίᾳ καὶ εὐνοίᾳ ἐβοήθουν αὐτῷ,
they helped him because of their friendship and good will,
they advance in a circle,
αὐτοὺς φοβοῦσι τῇ κραυγῇ,
they frighten them by their uproar,
they cross in boats,
βούλεται ἡμῖν χρῆσθαι,
he wishes to use (ie. serve himself by) us,
γένει προσήκει βασιλεῖ,
in family he is related to the king.
The dative of manner is used with comparatives to denote the degree of difference. thus,
πολλῷ μείζων ἐγίγνετο ἡ βοή,
the shouting grew much (literally, by much) louder.
The dative sometimes denotes the agent with the perfect and pluperfect passive, rarely with other passive tenses. See 203.
The dative is used to denote that by which any person or thing is accompanied. thus,
ἦλθε στρατεύματι πολλῷ,
he came with a mighty army.
The dative without a preposition often denotes the time when an action takes place. This is confined chiefly to
nouns denoting day, night, month, or year, and to names of festivals. Thus,
τῇ αὐτῇ ἡμέρᾳ,
on the same day,
on the following (day),
μιᾷ νυκτὶ πάντες ἀπέθανον,
all perished in a single night.
End Of Section
This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin