Lesson LXIV - Formation and Comparison of Adverbs

S595. Most adverbs are formed from adjectives and end in ως, Thus:

ADJECTIVE STEM GENITIVE PLURAL ADVERB
δίκαιος, just δικαιο δικαίων δικαίως
κακός, bad κακο κακῶν κακῶς
ἀσφαλής, secure ἀσφαλεσ ἀσφαλῶν ἀσφαλῶς
ἡδύς, pleasant ἡδυ ἡδέων ἡδέως
 

S596.
1. Adverbs formed from adjectives of the vowel declension add ς to the stem, the last vowel of which is lengthened, and have the accent of the genitive plural neuter.
2. Adverbs formed from adjectives of the consonant declension add ως to the stem, which takes the same form as before ων in the genitive plural neuter. The adverb is contracted when the genitive plural is contracted and has its accent.

S597. The neuter accusative singular of the comparative of an adjective forms the comparative of the corresponding adverb, and the neuter accusative plural of the superlative forms the superlative of the adverb.

Form the adverb in the positive, comparative, and superlative of ἀνδρεῖος, brave, ἰσχῡρός, strong, καλός, beautiful (577, 3), πρόθῡμος, eager, and ῥᾴδιος, easy (577, 8).

S598. VOCABULARY.
ἀνδρεῖος, ᾱ, ον, (compare ἀνήρ), manly, brave.
ἀνδρείως, (compare ἀνδρεῖος), adverb, bravely.
βαρβαρικῶς, (compare βαρβαρικός), adverb, in the barbarian tongue, e.g. in Persian.
διάγω, of time, pass, live, continue.
Ἑλληνικῶς, (compare Ἑλληνικός), adverb, , in Greek.
εὐδαιμόνως, (compare εὐδαίμων), happily.
ἰσχῡρῶς, (compare ἰσχῡρός), adverb strongly, vehemently, with severity.
κινδῡνεύω, κινδῡνεύσω, etc, (compare κίνδῡνος), be in peril, run a risk, encounter danger.
πονέω, πονήσω, etc. (compare πόνος), toil, labor, undergo hardship.
πόνος, ου, ὁ, toil, labor, hardship.
προθύμως, (compare πρόθῡμος), adverb, eagerly.
χαλεπαίνω, (χαλεπαν), χαλεπανῶ, ἐχαλέπηνα, ἐχαλεπάνθην, (compare χαλεπός), be severe or violent, be angry.

S599.
1. εὐδαιμόνως διάγουσιν οἰ ἀνδρεῖοι ἔως ἂν ζῶσι.

2. ἀκούσαντες δ᾽ οἱ στρατιῶται ἐχαλέπαινον καὶ ὠργίζοντο ἰσχῡρῶς τῷ Κλέαρχῳ.

3. εἰ ἀνάγκη ἐστὶ μάχεσθαι, ἀνδρείως μαχώμεθα.

4. τί ὑπ᾽ ἐμοῦ ἀδικούμενος κακῶς ἐποίεις τὴν ἐμὴν χώρᾱν;

5. οὔτε κινδῡνεύσαντες οὔτε πονήσαντες πλέον προυτῑμῶντο τῶν ἄλλων στρανωτῶν ὑπὸ Κύρου.
    προυτῑμῶντο - By contraction for πρὸ-ετῑμῶντο.

6. οἰ δ᾽ Ἕλληνες ἀσφαλῶς ἐπορεύοντο τὸ λοιπὸν τῆς ἠμέραs.

7. καὶ βοᾷ καὶ βαρβαρικῶς καὶ Ἑλληνικῶς ὅτι βασιλεὺς σὺν στρατεύματι πολλῷ ἐγγύς ἐστιν.

8. ὥστε ἡδέως καὶ προθύμως ἐπόνουν.

9. ἀκούοντες τὴν Κύρου ἀρετὴν ἥδῑον καὶ προθῡμότερον συνεπορεύοντο.

10. τοῦτο δὴ δεῖ λέγειν, πῶς ἂν πορευοίμεθα τε ὡς ἀσφαλέστατα, καὶ εἰ μάχεσθαι δέοι, ὡς κράτιστα μαχοίμεθα.
    ὡς as safely as possible. ὡς strengthens the superlative. Compare 579, 9.

11. ἐν πόνοις ὄντες πολοῖς σχολαίως ἐπορεύοντο.

S600.
1. Most gladly would I hear the heralds name.
2. Clearchus always punished with severity.
3. If we must proceed, let us proceed slowly.
4. He asked whether they could safely remain in the villages.
5. They did not undergo greater hardships than the rest of the soldiers.
    toil more (πλέον).

S601. He promises Great Rewards.
"ὥστε οὐ τοῦτο δέδοικα μὴ οὐκ ἔχω δῶρα ἱκανὰ τοῖς φίλοις
ἐὰν καλῶς καταπράξω ἐφ᾽ ἃ στρατεύομαι, ἀλλὰ μὴ οὐκ ἔχω
ἱκανοὺς φίλους. ὑμῶν δὲ τῶν Ἑλλήνων καὶ στέφανον ἐκάστῳ
χρῡσοῦν δώσω." οἱ δὲ ταῦτα ἀκούσαντες αὐτοί τε ἦσαν πολὺ
προθῡμότεροι καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις ἐξήγγελλον. ἠρώτων δὲ αὐτὸν
οἵ τε στρατηγοὶ καὶ τῶν ἄλλων Ἑλλήνων τινὲς τί σφίσιν ἔσται
ἐὰν νῑκήσωσιν. ὁ δὲ πολλὰ καὶ μεγάλα ὑπισχνούμενος ἀπέπεμπε.

ἔχω: subjunctive after a verb of fearing (334).
δώσω: I will give, future of δίδωμι.
σφίσιν: indirect reflexive (437).

See the route on the map.

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This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin

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