Lesson LX - Present System of Verbs, Indirect Discourse
In the previous lessons the verb has been developed by moods. It will now be developed by Tense Systems.
The following tense systems have been presented:
1. Present system, including the present and imperfect tenses in all the voices. Tense suffix ο/ε,
tense stem λῡο/ε.
Thus, λύω, ἐ-λῡο-ν, λύο-μαι, ἐ-λῡό-μην.
Compare 138, 147, 177.
2. Future system, including the future active and middle. Tense suffix σο/ε,
tense stem λῡσο/ε,
Thus, λύσω, λύσο-μαι.
Compare 139, 177.
3. First aorist system, including the first aorist active and middle. Tense suffix σα,
tense stem λῡσα.
Thus, ἔ-λῡσα, ἐ-λῡσά-μην.
Compare 148, 184.
4. First perfect system, including the first perfect and first pluperfect active. Tense suffix
(first pluperfect κε
), tense stem
(first pluperfect λελυκε
Thus, λέλυκα, ἐ-λελύκη.
Compare 140, 149.
5. Perfect middle system, including the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect middle and passive.
Tense suffix none (in the future perfect σο/ε
), tense stem λελυ
(future perfect λελῡσο/ε
). Thus, λέλυ-μαι, ἐ-λελύμην, λελύσο-μαι.
Compare 185, 186.
6. First passive system, including the first aorist and first future passive. Tense suffix θε,
lengthened to θη
in the indicative (first future passive θησο/ε
tense stem λυθε, λυθη
(first future passive λυθησο/ε
Thus, ἐ-λύθη-ν, λυθήσο-μαι.
Compare 195, 198.
The three remaining tense systems have also been briefly considered, the second aorist (91), second perfect (114, 115),
and second passive (197). In the following lessons they will receive fuller treatment.
Conjugate the present system of λύω
in 765, giving the moods
in order, down the columns, first in the active, then in the middle and passive.
The Synopsis of any system of a verb consists of the first form in each tense in
each mood of that system, arranged according to voices.
Thus, the synopsis of the present system of λύω
in the active is,
λύω᾽ ἔλῡον, λύω, λύοιμι, λῦε, λύειν, λύων.
Give the synopsis of the present
system of λύω
in the middle and passive.
A direct quotation or question gives the exact words of the original speaker or writer. In an indirect quotation or
question the original words conform to the construction of the sentence in which they are quoted.
Indirect quotations may be introduced by ὅτι
that, with a finite verb, or by the infinitive (469); sometimes by the participle.
Indirect questions follow the same principles as indirect quotations with
in regard to their moods and tenses.
1. γράφω ἐπιστολήν.
I am writing a letter;
λέγει ὅτι (or ὡς) γράφει ἐπιστολήν.
He says that he is writing a letter.
2. τί βούλεσθε;
What do you want?
ἐρωτᾷ τί (or ὁ τι) βούλεσθε.
He asks what you want.
In these examples a simple sentence is quoted indirectly. This involves in the first example a change in the person of the verb
of the quoted sentence, In the second example there is no such change in person; whether it occurs or not depends on the
connection, as in English. it involves also the use of ὅτι
that, to introduce the indirect quotation, and may involve a change of the interrogative pronoun τί
to the general relative ὅ τί
in the indirect question. There is no change in either of these examples of mood or tense.
etc. (compare ἄπροπος
), be in doubt or want, be at a loss.
) adverb, safely, securely.
δέχομαι, δέξομαι, ἐδεξάμιν, δέδεγμαι,
λέγω, ἔλεξα,εἴλοχα, ἔλεγμαι, ἐλέγην
adverb, really, in truth; conjunction, yet, still, however, nevertheless.
ουπώποτε, (οὔ-πω + ποτέ),
adverb, never yet.
πορείᾱ, ᾱς, ἡ,
collect, gather, bring together.
τρέφω, θρέψω, ἔθρεψα, τέθραμμαι, ἐτράφην
nourish, support, maintain.
impersonal, it is needful, one must or ought.
Give the original forms of all the indirect quotations and questions in the following exercise (562).
1. Κῦρος δὲ τοῦτοις
ἀπορῶν τε καὶ λῡπούμενος μετεπέμπετο τὸν Κλέαρχον.
Dative of cause (866).
δέ μοι ἡμᾶς ἐρωτᾶν Κῦρον τί βούλεται ἡμῖν χρῆσθαι.
Impersonal, it seems best.
Cognate accusative (833) after Χρησθαι, what use he wishes to make of us. For the dative ἡμῖν, compare 309, 1.
In its original form the question would be, τί βούλει ἡμῖν χρῆσθαι;
3. λέγομεν γὰρ ὅτι κακίους εἰσὶ περὶ ἡμᾶς ἢ ἡμεῖς περὶ ἐκείνους.
4. τοῦτο δ᾽ αὖ οὕτω συλλέγεται καὶ τρέφεται αυτῷ τό στράτευμα.
5. οἱ δὲ
ἔλεγον ὅτι οὐπώποθ᾽ οὗτος ὁ ποταμὸς διαβατὸς ἐγένετο πεζῇ εἰ μὴ τότε.
The article is used as a demonstrative, and they (815).
They said, οὐπώποθ οὗτος ὁ ποταμὸς διαβατὸς ἐγένετο εἰ μὴ νῦν.
6. ἀγορὰν δὲ παρέχετε
τῷ στρατεύματι καὶ δέχεσθε τοὺς Ἕλληνας.
7. βουλεύωμεθα, ἄνδρες στρατιῶται, εἰ
κατὰ γῆν χρὴ πορεύεσθαι.
whether, introduces the indirect question.
8. Ξενοφῶν μέντοι βούλεται μετʼ αὐτῶν τὴν πορείᾱν ποιεῖσθαι, νομίζων οὕτως ἀσφαλέστερον εἶναι.
9. τοῦτο δὴ δεῖ λέγειν, τῶς ἂν πορευοίμεθα τε ασφαλῶς καὶ εἰ μάχεσθαι δέοι καλῶς μαχοίμεθα.
1. Cyrus was exhorting the Greeks not to flee.
2. He calls his soldiers together to consult
about the journey.
Use the subjunctive in a final clause.
3. He orders the exiles to take the field with Clearchus.
this fellow out of the way.
Use the present.
5. He says that one of Menons soldiers was splitting wood.
S564. Council of War. Speech of Cyrus.
Κῦρος δὲ συγκαλέσας τοὺς στρατηγοὺς καὶ λοχᾱγοὺς τῶν
῾Eλλήνων συνεβουλεύετό τε πῶς ἂν
τὴν μάχην ποιοῖτο
αὐτὸς παρῄνει θαρρύνων τοιάδε˙
"Ὧ ἄνδρες ῾Έλληνες,
οὐκ ἀνθρώπων ἀπορῶν βαρβάρων
συμμάχους ὑμᾶς ἄγω,
ἀλλὰ νομίζων ἀμείνους
πολλῶν βαρβάρων ὑμᾶς εἶναι, διὰ
τοῦτο προσέλαβον. ἔστε
οὖν ἄνδρες ἄξιοι τῆς ἐλευθερίᾱς
καὶ ἧς ὑμᾶς ἐγὼ εὐδαιμονίζω."
ἂν ποιοῖτο: the person changes. Compare 390, 1.
παρῄνει . . . τοιάδε: exhorted and encouraged them as follows.
ἀνθρωπων βαρβορων: verbs signifying want take the genitive (848 ).
ἀπορων: the participle expresses cause (495,2). So νομίζων in the next line.
ἀμείνους: braver, accusative plural masculine of ἀμείνων, irregular comparative of αγαθός.
διὰ τοῦτο: resumes νομιζων, because I thought, etc, on this account.
ἐστε: imperative, ἐλευθερίᾱς: the genitive depending on ἄξιος, worthy, is the genitive of value (853).
ἧς ἔχετε = ἣν ἔχετε, which you possess. The relative is assimilated to the case of its antecedent (828 ).
ἧς: genitive of cause (851) with εὐδαιμονίζω.
See the route on the map.
End Of Chapter
This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin