Lesson LII - Participles Active S482. The participle occurs in the present, future, aorist, perfect, and future perfect tenses.

S483. Learn the four forms of the active participles of λύω in 765-768, and their declension in 754. λύσων, about to loose, is declined like λύων.

S484. Participles form their stems by a special suffix added to the tense stems. In the active this is ντ, except in the perfect, where the suffix is οτ, as λῡο-ντ, λῡσο-ντ, λῡσα-ντ, λελύκ-οτ. In the perfect final α of the stem is dropped before οτ. The perfect active participle is oxytone.

S485. The present participle of εἰμί is ὤν, οὖσα, ὄν (795).

S486. Participles in αων, εων, and οων are contracted. See τῑμάων in 781, ποιέων in 782, and δηλόων in 783. Learn the declension of τῑμῶν and ποιῶν in 755. δηλῶν is declined exactly like ποιῶν.

S487. The participle constantly occurs in Greek where English uses a relative clause. e.g. :

1. οὐκ ἐφίλει τὸν βασιλεύοντα Ἀρταξέρξην.
She did not love Artaxerxes, who was king.

2. ἐπὶ τὸν ποταμὸν πορεύονται, ὄντα τὸ εὖρος πλέθρου.
Τhey proceed to the river, which is a hundred feet wide.

3. τῷ τοὺς ἵππους λύσαντι ὠργίζετο.
He was angry with the man who had loosed the horses.

4. οὑτοί ἐσιν οἱ ὑμᾶς πάντας ἀδικήσοντες.
These are the men who will wrong you all.

An attributive participle may thus be used like an adjective to qualify a noun (compare 1, 2); or the noun may be omitted, and the participle with the article may itself be used as a noun (compare 3, 4). These participles denote time present, past, or future, relatively to the time of the leading verb.

S488. VOCABULARY.
ἀπέχω, keep off; intrans., be distant.
βοηθέω, βοηθήσω, ἐβοήθησα, βεβοήθηκα, βεβοήθημαι, run in order to aid, help, assist.
δώδεκα, indeclinable, twelve.
εὔνοια, ᾱς, ἡ, (compare εὐνους), good will, fidelity.
οἰκέω, οἰκήσω, etc. (compare οἰκίᾱ), inhabit, dwell; pass., be inhabited, be situated.
οἴομαι, οἰήσομαι, ᾠήθην, think, expect.
Ὀρόντᾱs, α, (Doric genitive) or ου, ὁ, Orontas
οὐδέποτε, (οὐδέ + ποτέ, ever), adv., never.
πάρειμι, be near or present. τὰ παρόντα, the present circumstances.
πρόσθεν, (compare πρός) , adv., before, previously.
φιλίᾱ, ᾱς, ἡ, (compare φίλος), friendship.
χαλεπός, ή, όν, hard, difficult.

S489.
1. τριήρεις γὰρ ἔχει ὁ κωλύσων ἡμᾶς.

2. οἱ πρόσθεν ἡμῖν βοηθήσαντες τοὺς ὅρκους λελύκασιν.
The dative of the indirect object follows verbs signifying to aid, assist, and the like (800).

3. ὦ ἄνδρες στρατιῶται, χαλεπά ἐστι τὰ παρόντα.

4. ᾤετο γὰρ τοὺς κωλύσοντας εἶναι πέρᾱν τοῦ ποταμοῦ.

5. πρὸς τῷ ποταμῷ κώμη ᾠκεῖτο, ἀπέχουσα τοῦ ποταμοῦ παρασάγγην.

6. Κλέαρχος γὰρ φιλίᾳ καὶ εὐνοίᾳ βοηθούντας οὐδέποτε εἶχεν.
Dative of cause (866).

7. τῶν γὰρ νικώντων ἐστὶ καὶ τὰ ἑαυτῶν σῴζειν.
Predicate genitive of possession (843).

8. ἐρωτᾷ τί τὸ κωλῦόν ἐστι πορεύεσθαι.
The thing which hinders, i.e. the hindrance.

9. ἔφη τὸν μὲν καλῶς ποιοῦντα ἐπαινεῖν, τὸν δὲ ἀδικοῦντα οὐκ ἐπαινεῖν.

S490.
1. Those who dwelt by the sea were friendly.
2. He sent men who would rescue the boys.
3. But he called those also who were besieging the city.
4. Aristippus, who was a friend of Cyrus, hastened to Sardis.
5. Here was situated a prosperous city, twenty parasangs distant from the sea.

S491. The Traitor betrayed.
τῷ δὲ Κύρῳ ακούσαντι ταῦτα εδόκει ὠφέλιμα εἶναι, καὶ ἐκέλευσεν
Ὀρόνταν λαμβάνειν μέρος παρʼ ἑκάστου τῶν ἡγεμόνων. ὁ δ᾽ Ὀρόντας
νομίσᾱs ἑτοίμους εἶναι αυτῷ τοὺς ἄνδρας γράφει ἐπιστολὴν παρὰ
Ἀρταξέρξην ὅτι ἥξει στρατιώτᾱς ἔχων˙ ἀλλὰ φράσαι τοῖς ἑαυτοῦ
στρατιῶταις ἐκέλευεν ὡς (as) φίλον αὐτὸν ὑποδέχεσθαι. ἐνῆν δὲ ἐν
τῇ ἐπιστολῇ καὶ τῆς πρόσθεν φιλίᾱς ὑπομνήματα καὶ πίστεως. ταύτην
τὴν ἐπιστολὴν δίδωσι πιστῷ ανδρί, ὡς ᾤετο˙ ὁ δὲ Κύρω δίδωσιν.

ταῦτα: subject of ἐδοκει.
ὠφέλιμα: for the meaning, compare ὠφελέω.
τῶν ἡγεμόνων: the commanders of Cyrus's native troops.
ἑαυτοῦ: refers to Artaxerxes.
αὐτὸν: i.e. Orontas.
τῆς πρόσθεν φιλίᾱς: their former friendship (811).
δίδωσι: he gives.

See the route on the map.

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This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin

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