Lesson L -The Infinitive (continued)
Learn the conjugation of the present and imperfect indicative of φημί
All the forms of the present indicative of φημί
enclitic except φῄς.
Review 168, 169.
1. φησὶ Κλέαρχον ἡγεῖσθαι,
He says that Clearchus is leading.
2. φησὶν ὑμᾶς ταῦτα ποιῆσαι,
He says that you did this.
3. κελεύει Κλέαρχον ἡγεῖσθαι,
He orders Clearchus to lead.
4. κελεύει ὑμᾶς ταῦτα ποιῆσαι,
He bids you do this.
In all the examples the infinitive is the object of the principal verb, but in the first two it represents the words of an
original speaker and its tense corresponds in time to the same tense of the indicative (the speaker says:
Κλέαπχος ἡγεῖται, ταῦτα ἐποίησαν
); whereas in the last two examples, where the infinitive is
the object of a simple verb of commanding, as explained in 461, this distinction of tense does not exist.
But both ἡγεῖσθαι
and ποιῆσαι refer to the future.
The infinitive in indirect discourse is generally the object of a verb of saying or thinking, or some
equivalent expression. Here each tense of the infinitive corresponds in time to the same tense of some finite mood.
1. κραυγὴν ἐποίουν, ὥστε τοὺς πολεμίους ἀκούειν,
They made a great noise, so that the enemy heard them.
2. ἀφιππεύει πρὶν τοὺς ἄλλους ἀφικνεῖσθαι,
He rides off before the rest arrive.
The infinitive may follow ὥστε,
expressing result, and πρὶν,
adv., immediately, forthwith.
γένος, ους, τό,
γίγνομαι (γεν), γενήσομαι, ἐγενόμην, γέγονα, γεγένημαι,
be born, become, prove oneself to be.
δῆλος, η, ον
), plain, evident, manifest.
conj., or,. ἢ . . .ἤ,
either ... or.
ὀργίζομαι, (οργιδ), ὀργιοῦμαι,
etc. (compare ὀργή
), be angry.
conj., before, until.
have come to, be related to
στρατόπεδον, ου, τό,
), adv., quickly.
φημί (φα), φήσω, ἔφησα,
say, declare, state, affirm.
Give the forms of the quoted sentences in the following exercise (473) in the words of the original speaker.
1. οἱ δὲ ἄλλοι φᾱσὶ βουλεύσεσθαι.
2. τοξευθήναι Ἕλληνα ἔφη ἐπὶ τῷ δεξιῷ.
3. ἐμοὶ δὲ φησι φίλος καὶ πιστὸς γενήσεσθαι.
ὠργίζοντο, νομίζοντες ἀδικηθῆναι ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ.
The dative follows verbs expressing anger (860).
5. φημὶ δὴ ἢ νῑκᾶν δεήσειν ἢ ἡττᾶσθαι.
6. ἐνομίζομεν αὐτίκα ἥξειν αὐτοὺς ἐπὶ τό στρατόπεδον.
7. ὁμολογεῖς οὖν περὶ ἐμὲ ἄδικοσ γεγενῆσθαι;
8. ἔφασαν δὲ τοῦτον τὸν Πέρσην γένει
προσήκειν τῷ Ἀρταξέρξῃ.
γενει in race, a dative of respect, which is a form of the dative of manner (866).
9. πάντας οὕτω δώροις ἐτίμᾱ ὥστε αὐτῷ μᾶλλον φίλους εἶναι ἢ τῷ ἀδελφῷ.
10. πρόθῡμοί ἐσμεν ταχέως πορεύεσθαι πρὶν δῆλον εἶναι τί οἱ ἄλλοι Ἕλληνες ποιήσουσι.
1. All confessed that Cyrus was loved
by the Greeks.
They said, Κῦρος φιλειται.
2. He thought that the Lacedaemonians would take
the field against Tissaphernes.
The person's thought was, "The Lacedaemonians will take," etc.
3. They said they would not engage in war with Cyrus.
4. He says he will start before the enemy approach.
5. They are not so hostile as to plot against him.
S475. Cyrus makes a Successful Appeal to Clearchus.
Κλέαρχε καὶ Πρόξενε καὶ οἱ ἄλλοι Ἕλληνες, τί ποιεῖτε; εἰ
γὰρ τινα ἀλλήλοις μάχην συνάψετε, νομίζετε ἐν τῇδε τῇ ἡμέρᾳ
ἐμέ τε κατακεκόψεσθαι
καὶ ὑμᾶς οὐ πολὺ
ἐὰν γὰρ τὰ ἡμέτερα κακῶς ἔχῃ, πάντες οὗτοι οἱ βάρβαροι
πολέμιοι ἡμῖν ἔσονται. Κλέαρχος δὲ ἐπεὶ ἤκουσε ταῦτα
ἐν ἑαυτῷ ἐγένετο,
καὶ ἐπαύσαντο ἀμφότεροι τῆς ὀργῆς.
κατακεκόψεσθαι: future perfect infinitive in indirect discourse, shall have been cut to pieces, shall be instantly cut to pieces.
οὐ πολὺ: not long.
ἐμοῦ ὕστερον: after me. adverbs of the comparative degree take the genitive (858).
ἐν ἑαυτῷ ἐγένετο: came to himself, recovered his senses.
See the route on the map.
End Of Chapter
This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin