Lesson XII - Perfect and Pluperfect Indicative Active

S105. The perfect and pluperfect, in all the moods, have a reduplication, which is the mark of completed action.

S106. Verbs beginning with a single consonant (except ρ) are reduplicated in the perfect by prefixing that consonant followed by ε as λύω, λε-λύκα. A rough mute (7) is changed to the cognate (8) smooth, as θυο, sacrifice, τε-θυκα.

S107. In verbs beginning with two consonants (except a mute and a liquid), with a double consonant (ξ ψ ζ) or with ρ the reduplication is represented by a simple ε as στρατευω, make an expedition, ἐστρατευκα.

S108. In verbs beginning with a short vowel or diphthong the reduplication has the form of the temporal argument (67, 2), as ἁρπάζω, ἡρπακη.

S109. When the reduplicated perfect begins with a consonant, the pluperfect prefixes the syllabic augment to the reduplication, as λελύκα, ἐλελύκη. In other cases the pluperfect generally keeps the reduplication of the perfect without change, as ἡρπακα, ἡρπακη.

S110. Paradigms

FIRST PERFECT   ____ have loosed.
SINGULAR PLURAL
λελύκα λελύκαμεν
λελύκας λελύκατε
λελύκε λελύκᾱσι
   
DUAL  
λελύκατον
λελύκατον  

FIRST PLUPERFECT   ____ had loosed.
SINGULAR PLURAL
ἐλελύκη ἐλελύκεμεν
ἐλελύκης ἐλελύκετε
ἐλελύκει ἐλελύκεσαν
   
DUAL  
ἐλελύκετον
ἐλελυκέτην  


FIRST PERFECT ____ have plundered.
SINGULAR PLURAL
ἥρπακα ἡρπάκαμεν
ἥρπακας ἡρπάκατε
ἥρπακε ἡρπάκᾱσι
   
DUAL  
ἡρπάκατον
ἡρπάκατον  


FIRST PLUPERFECT ____ had plundered.
SINGULAR PLURAL
ἡρπάκη ἠρπάκεμεν
ἡρπάκης ἡρπάκετε
ἡρπάκει ἡρπάκεσαν
   
DUAL  
ἡρπάκετον
ἡρπακέτην  


S111. The first perfect adds κα, the first pluperfect κη, to the reduplicated theme.

S112. In vowel verbs, the stem may not be affected by adding κα and κη as βουλεύω, βεβουλεύ-κα, ἐβεβουλεύ-κη, κελεύω, κεκέλευ-κα, ἐκεκελεύ-κη.

a. ἔχω has the irregular forms ἔσχηκα, ἐσχήκη.

S113. Verbs whose stem ends in τ-mute (τ δ θ) drop the mute before κα and κη as ἀθροίζω (ἀθροιδ), ἤθροι-κα, ἠθροί-κη.

S114. Some verbs whose stem ends in a π-mute (π β θ) or a κ-mute (κ γ χ) add α and η instead of κα and κη, and aspirate the final letter of the stem, changing π and β to φ, and κ and γ to χ as πέμπω, πέπομφ-α (with change of ε of the stem to ο), επεπόμφ-η. διώκω, δεδίωχ-α, εδεδιώχ-η. ἄγω, ἦχ-α, ἤχ-η.

S115. The perfects and pluperfects just described (114) are called second perfects and pluperfects.

S116. Vocabulary.
διαρπάζω, διαρπάσω, διήρπασα, διήρπακα, plunder completely, sack.
θύω, θύσω, ἔθυσα, τέθυκα, sacrifice.
στρατεύω, στρατεύσω, στράτευσα, στράτευκα, (compare στρατιά, στρατιώτης) make an expedition.
δᾱρεικός, οῦ, ὁ, daric (a gold coin).
θεός, οῦ, ἡ, god, godess.
Κλέαρχος, ου, ὁ, Clearchus.
ὅρκος, ου, ὁ, oath.
φόβος, ου, ὁ, (compare φοβερός), fear.
γάρ, conjunction, for (a postpositive).
διά, preposition, with genitive, through, with accusative, on account of.
πρός, preposition, with genitive, over against; with dative, at; with accusative, to, against, towards.

S117.
1. ἐσχήκατε
2. ἐλελύκει
3. ἐστρατεύκασι
4. τέθυκε
5. ἐσχήκη
6. ἡρπάκαμεν
7. διηρπάκεσαν
8. πέπομφας
9. ἐκεκελεύκεσαν
10. ἐπὶβεβουλεύκασι

Answers:
1. Yous have had. 2. He had loosed. 3. They have made and expedition. 4. He has sacrificed. 5. I had had. 6. We have plundered. 7. They had sacked. 8. You have sent. 9. They had commanded. 10. They have plotted against.

S118.
1. We have had.
2. I have commanded.
3. They have pursued.
4. you have sent.
5. He has plotted against.

Answers:
1. ἐσχήκaμεν 2. ἐκεκελελύεκη 3. ἐδεδιωχεσαν 4. πεπομφας 5. ἐπὶβεβουλεύκε


S119.
1. τοὺς πολεμίους δεδιώχαμεν διὰ τῶν κωμῶν εἰς τὴν θάλατταν.
2. καὶ τὰς ἁμάξᾱς οἱ βάρβαροι διηρπάκεσαν.
3. τριᾱκοσίους δᾱρεικοὺς ἐπεπόμφεμεν τοῖς ὁπλίταις.
4. Κλέαρχος δὲ ἐπεβεβουλεύκει τοῖς Πέρσιας.
5. οἱ στρατιῶται τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἤχεσαν πρὸς Κῦρον.
6. οὐκ εκεκελεύκει ὁ Κλέαρχος τοὺς στρατιώτᾱς θύειν.
7. ἐπὶ τὴν τῶν πολεμίων χώρᾱν ἐστρατεύκατε.
8. λελύκᾱσι τοὺς (their) ὄρκους οἱ στρατηγοί˙ οὐ γὰρ τεθύκασι τοῖς θεοῖς.
9. ἤθροικας, ὦ Κῦρε, ἐπὶ τοὺς βαρβάρους τοὺς πελταστὰς καὶ τοὺς τοξότᾱς.
10. οἱ δὲ στρατιῶται τὰς ἁμάξᾱς ἐλελύκεσαν διὰ τὸν (their) τῶν πολεμίων φόβον.

Answers:
1. The enemy we pursued through the village to the sea. 2. The wagons, the barbarians had plundered completely. 3. Three hundred darics we had sent to the hoplites. 4. Klearchus, he had plotted against the Persians. 5. The soldiers had led the man to Cyrus. 6. He did not command (Clearchus) the soldier's to sacrifice. 7. To the place of the enemy yous have made an expedition. 8. They violated their oaths, those generals. For they have not sacrificed to the gods. 9. You gathered, O Cyrus, against the barbarians, the peltasts and bowmen. 10. But the soldiers their wagons they destroyed, for the enemy, they feared.

S120.
1. We have broken our oaths.
2. The soldiers had sacrificed to the gods.
3. Have the peltasts sacked the villages?
4. The soldier has plotted against Cyrus.
5. His brother had ordered Cyrus to send gifts.

Answers:
1. τοὺς ὁρκους λελύκαμεν. 2. οἱ στρατιῶται ἐτεθυκεσαν τοῖς θεοῖς. 3. διηρπακασιν οἱ πελτασταὶ τὰς κώμᾱς; 4. ὁ στρατιωτης ἐπεβεβουλύεκε τῷ Κύρῳ. 5. ὁ αδελφος εκεκελευκει Κῦρον δορα πέμπειν.

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