Lesson IX - O-Declension (continued)

S81. Learn the declension of the definite article in 758. The vocative does not occur. Greek, like Latin, has no definite article.

S82. Paradigms

ὁ οἰνος, wine
SINGULAR    
Nominative οἶνος wine
Genitive οἴνου of wine
Dative οἴνῳ to wine, for wine
Accusative οἶνον wine
Vocative οἶνε oh, wine
     
PLURAL    
Nominative οἶνοι wines
Genitive οἴνων of wines
Dative οἴνοις` to wines, for wines
Accusative οἴνους wines
     
DUAL    
Nominative, Accusative,
Vocative
 οἴνω the two wines, O, two wines
Genitive, Dative  οἴνοιν of the two wines, to the two wines, for the two wines



ἡ στενὴ ὁδός the narrow road
SINGULAR    
Nominative ἡ στενὴ ὁδός the narrow road
Genitive τῆς στενῆς ὁδοῦ of a narrow road
Dative τῇ στενῇ ὁδῷ to a narrow road, for a narrow road
Accusative τὴν στενὴν ὁδόν the narrow road
Vocative στενὴ ὁδέ oh, narrow road
     
PLURAL    
Nominative αἱ στεναὶ ὁδοί narrow roads
Genitive τῶν στενῶν ὁδῶν of a narrow roads
Dative ταῖς στεναῖς ὁδοῖς to narrow roads, for narrow roads
Accusative τὰς στενὰς ὁδούς narrow roads
     
DUAL    
Nominative, Accusative,
Vocative
τὼ στενὰ ὁδώ the two narrow roads, O, two narrow roads
Genitive, Dative τοῖν στεναῖν ὁδοῖν of the two narrow roads, to the two narrow roads, for the two narrow roads



πλοῖον μακρόν a long boat
SINGULAR  
Nominative πλοῖον μακρόν
Genitive πλοίου μακροῦ
Dative πλοίῳ μακρῷ
Accusative πλοῖον μακρόν
Vocative πλοῖον μακρόν
   
PLURAL  
Nominative πλοῖα μακρά
Genitive πλοιων μακρῶν
Dative πλοιοις μακροῖς
Accusative πλοῖα μακρά
   
DUAL  
 Nominative, Accusative, Vocative πλοίω μακρώ
Genitive, Dative πλοίοιν μακροῖν


a. Adjectives agree with their nouns not only in case and number but also in gender. See the Rule of Syntax in 805. The adjective therefore may be of the A-Declension while the noun is of the O-Declension, as in ἡ στενὴ ὁδός above.
b. A postpositive word is one which is never placed first in a sentence, but generally second.


S83. Vocabulary
Κῦρος, ου, ὁ, Cyrus.
ὁδός, οῦ, ἡ, road, way
οἶνος, οῦ, ὁ, wine
ποταμός, οῦ, ὁ, river
στρατηγός, οῦ, ὁ, general
φανερός, ά, όν, adjective, in plain sight, visible, evident
θηρίον, ου, τό, wild beast
ὅπλον, ου, τό, impliment, plur. arms
πλοῖον, ου, τό, boat
τόξον, ου, τό, bow
ὁ, the masculine definite article
ἡ, the feminine definite article
τό, the neuter definite article
ὦ, O, interjection with vocative
δέ, but,and conjunction (a postpositive)


S84.
1. στενὴ ἦν ἡ ὁδόs.
2. ἐν τ πεδί ἦν* θηρία.
3. τ πλοῖα μακρ ἦν.
4. ἐπὶ τ ποταμ ἦν ὁ στρατηγός.
5. τόξα δέ, ὦ Κῦρε, οὐκ ἔχομεν.
6. ὁδὸς φανερ ἄγει εἰς τὰς τοῦ Κύρου κώμᾱς.
7. εἰς τὸ πεδίον ὁ στρατηγὸς ἔπεμπε τοὺς ἵππους.
8. τ στρατηγ οἶνον Κῦρος ἔπεμπε.
9. ἡ ὁδός, ὦ Κῦρε, ἄγει εἰς πεδίον καλόν.
10. ἦγον οἱ ἵπποι καὶ τοὺς στρατηγοὺς καὶ τ ὅπλα.

* A neuter plural subject in Greek regularly has its verb in the singular. See rule of Syntax in 802.

Answers:
1. Narrow it was the road. 2. In the plain, there were beasts. 3. The boats long they were. 4. (By or On) the river, there was the general. 5. Bows, O Cyrus, we do not have. 6. The way one can see into the village of Cyrus. 7. Into the plain the general was sending the horses. 8. For the general, wine Cyrus was sending. 9. The way, O Cyrus, leads into the plain beautiful. 10. The horses were carrying the generals and the arms.

S85.
1. Cyrus sent gifts to the generals.
2. He lead the horse into the river.
3. The general had ships of war.
    Note: πλοῖα μακρα. (compare Latin nāuēs longae.)
4. We are sending the wine to Cyrus.
5. The generals sent horses to Cyrus.

Answers:
1. Κῦρος ἐπέμπεν δωρα τοῖς στρατηγοις. 2. ἠγεν τὸν ἵππον εἰς τὸν ποταμὸν. 3. ὁ στρατηγὸς εἶχεν πλοῖα μακρα. 4. ἐπέμπομεν κυρῳ τὸν οἰνον. 5. οἱ στρατηγοὶ κυρῳ ἐπέμπον ἵππους.

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