Lesson VIII - O-Declension

S75. Nouns of the O-Declension end in ος (masculine, rarely feminine) or in ον (neuter).

S76. Paradigms
ὁ λόγος word
  SINGULAR PLURAL
N λόγος word λόγοι words
G λόγου of a word λόγων of words
D λόγῳ to a word, for a word λόγοις to words, for words
A λόγον word λόγους words
V λόγε O, word λόγοι O, words
   
  DUAL  
NAV λόγω the two words, O, two words  
GD λόγοιν of the two words, to the two words, for the two words  


ὁ ἀγαθὸς ἄνθρωπος the good man
  SINGULAR PLURAL
N ὁ ἀγαθὸς ἄνθρωπος the good man οἱ ἀγαθοὶ ἄνθρωποι good men
G τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ ἀνθρώπου of a good man τῶν ἀγαθῶν ἀνθρώπων of a good men
D τῷ ἀγαθῷ ἀνθρώπῳ to a good man, for a good man τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς ἀνθρώποις to good men, for good men
A τὸν ἀγαθὸν ἄνθρωπον the good man τοὺς ἀγαθοὺς ἀνθρώπους good men
V ἀγαθὲ ἄνθρωπε oh, good man ἀγαθοὶ ἄνθρωποι oh, good men
   
  DUAL  
NAV τὼ ἀγαθὼ ἀνθρώπω the two good men, O, two good men  
GD τοῖν ἀγαθοῖν ἀνθρώποιν of the two good men, to the two good men, for the two good men  


τὸ καλὸν δῶρονν the fine gift
  SINGULAR PLURAL
N τὸ καλὸν δῶρον tthe fine gift τὰ καλὰ δῶρα fine gifts
G τοῦ καλοῦ δώρου of a fine gift τῶν καλῶν δώρων of a fine gifts
D τῷ καλῷ δώρῳ to a fine gift, for a fine gift τοῖς καλοῖς δώροις to fine gifts, for fine gifts
A τὸ καλὸν δῶρον the fine gift τὰ καλὰ δῶρα fine gifts
V καλὸν δῶρον oh, fine gift καλὰ δῶρα oh, fine gifts
   
  DUAL  
NAV τὼ καλὼ δώρω the two fine gifts, oh, two fine gifts  
GD τοῖν καλοῖν δώροινof the two fine gift, to the two fine gifts, for the two fine gifts  


a. The forms ὁ, οἱ are proclitic (26).

b. Observe the cases that are alike (30).

S77. The masculine and neuter of the adjectives thus far given follow the O-Declension, the feminine the A-Declension. The nominative singular, therefore ends in ος, η or ᾱ, ον (Latin us, a, um), as follows:

ἀγαθός, ἀγαθή, ἀγαθόν, good

Ἑλληνικός, Ἑλληνική, Ἑλληνικόν, Greek.

κακός, κακή, κακόν, cowardly, bad.

καλός, καλή, καλόν, beautiful.

μακρός, μακρά, μακρόν, long

μῑκρός, μικρά, μῑκρόν, narrow

στενός, στενή, στενόν, narrow

φοβερός, φοβερά, φοβερόν, frightful

S78. Vocabulary
ἄνθρωπος, ου, ὁ, ἡ, man, human being. Latin homo.
ἵππος, ου, ὁ, horse.
λόγος, ου, ὁ, word, speech.
πόλεμος, ου, ὁ, war
σύμμαχος, ου, ὁ, ally.
δῶρον, ου, τό, gift.
πεδίον, ου, τό, plain.
χωρίον, ου, τό, ( cf. χώρᾱ), small place, place, spot.
καὶ.....καί, both.....and.

a. The article placed after the noun indicates its gender, the masculine, the feminine, τὸ the neuter.


S79.
1. δῶρα ἔπεμπε τῇ στρατιᾷ;
2. ἐν τ χωρί ἦσαν οἰκίαι.
3. ὁ πόλεμος φοβερὸς ἦν.
4. εἰς τὸ πεδίον ἔπεμπεν ἀνθρώπους.
5. τοὺς ἵππους ἄγομεν ἐκ τοῦ χωρίου.
6. ἐν τῷ πεδί ἦσαν καὶ ἵπποι καὶ ἄνθρωπ οι.
7. δῶρα πέμπομεν μὲν τοῖς συμμάχοις.
8. οἱ σύμαχοι ἐν πολέμ κακοὶ ἦσαν.
9. οἱ τῶν συμάχων λόγοι καλοὶ ἦσαν.
10. ἐν τ πεδί ἦσαν οἱ τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἵπποι.

Answers:
1. Gifts he is sending to the army? 2. In the country, there were homes. 3. The war fearful it was. 4. To the plain he sent the men. 5. The horses we were leading out of the place. 6. In the plain there were horses and men. 7. Gifts we are sending to the allies. 8. The allies for the enemy were cowards. 9. The allies words beautiful they were. 10. In the plain was the horses of the men.

ος|ον|ὸς|ός --» Nom Sing (or with ον) Acc Pl
ου -----------» Gen Sing of a ___
ῳ ------------» Dat Sing to or for a ___
ε ------------» Voc Sing oh ___
οι|α ---------» Nom Pl ___s, Voc Pl oh ___s, Acc Pl ___s
ων -----------» Gen Pl of ____s
οις|οῖς ------» Dat Pl to or for ___s
ους ----------» Acc Pl ___s

S80. 1. The allies had horses.
2. I lead the horse into the village.
3. The place was narrow.
4. The man was a coward (i.e. cowardly) in war.
5. He sent the horses to the allies.

Answers:
1. οἱ συμάχοι ἵππους εἰχον. 2. ἀγον τὸν ἱππον εἰς τὴν κωμην. 3. τὸ χορὸν στηνον ἦν. 4. ὁ ἀνθρωπος ἦν κακὸς ἐν πολεμῳ. 5. ἵππους ἐπέμπεν εἰς τοῖς συμάχοις.


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