Lesson VII - Imperfect Indicative Active

S66. In the secondary tenses (50) of the indicative, the verb receives an augment (i.e. increase) at the beginning.

S67. Augment is of two kinds:

1. Syllabic augment, which prefixes ε to verbs beginning with a consonant, as λύω, imperfect ἔ-λύον, I was loosing.

2. Temporal augment, which lengthens the first syllable of verbs beginning with a vowel or diphthong, as ἄγω, imperfect ἦγον I was leading. When augmented, α and ε become η; ι, ο, υ become ῑ, ω, ῡ; αι and become ῃ; οι becomes ῳ.

a. ἔχω irregularly has the imperfect εἶχον.

S68. The imperfect indicative represents an action as going on in past time, as ἔλῡον, I was loosing, I loosed.

1. ἔλῡον ἐλύομεν
2. ἔλῡες ἐλύετε
3. ἔλῡε ἐλῡον
2. ἐλύετον  
3. ἐλῡέτην  

1. ἐβούλευον ἐβουλεύομεν
2. ἐβούλευες ἐβουλεύετε
3. ἐβούλευε ἐβούλευον
2. ἐβουλεύετον  
3. ἐβουλευέτην  

1. ἔπεμπον ἐπέμπομεν
2. ἔπεμπες ἐπέμπετε
3. ἔπεμπε ἔπεμπον
2. ἐπέμπετον  
3. ἐπεμπέτην  

1. ἥρπαζον ἡρπάζομεν
2. ἥρπαζες ἡρπάζετε
3. ἥρπαζε ἥρπαζον
2. ἡρπάζετον  
3. ἡρπαζέτην  

S70. Verbs have recessive accent (53). But, under the general laws, the accent sometimes shifts (19), as ἔλυον, ἐλύομεν, etc., sometimes changes (21), as εἶχον, I had, εἴχομεν, we had.

Review the meanings of all the words given in the vocabularies of Lesson III thru Lesson VI.

1. λύετε. 2. γον. 3. εἴχετε. 4. λῡον. 5. γες. 6. εἶχε. 7. βούλευες. 8. πεμπε. 9. ρπάζομεν. 10. βουλεύομεν.

1. Yous were destroying. 2. I was leading. 3. Yous were having. 4. I was destroying. 5. You were leading. 6. He was having. 7. You were planning. 8. He was sending. 9. We were seizing. 10. We were planning.

1. I loosed. 2. We had 3. you sent. 4. He planned. 5. They plundered.

1. λῡον 2. εἰχομεν 3. πέμπες 4. βουλεύε 5. ρπαζον

ον ----» Imperfect Ind. Active 1st Person Sing. I was ___ing, I ___ed.  *OR*
ον ----» Imperfect Ind. Active 3rd Person Pl. They were ___ing, They ___ed.

ε -----» Imperfect Ind. Active 2nd Person Sing. (he, she, it) was ___ing.)
ες ----» Imperfect Ind. Active 3rd Person Sing. You were ___ing.
ομεν --» Imperfect Ind. Active 1st Person Pl. We were ___ing.
ετε ---» Imperfect Ind. Active 2nd Person Pl. Yous were ___ing.

1. ἡ οἰκίᾱ θύρᾱς καλὰς εἶχε.
2. τὴν φυλακὴν πεμπεν* εἰς τὴν κώμην. 
3. ἐν ταῖς κώμαις καλὰς εἶχεν οἰκίᾱς.
4. ρπαζες τὰς σκηνάς;
5. ἐκ τῆς οἰκίᾱς οὐκ γες τὴν φυλακήν.
6. οὐχ ρπάζομεν τὰς μῑκρὰς κώμᾱς.
7. ἁμάξᾱς ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ εἴχετε.
8. ἐπὶ τὴν θάλατταν γον τὴν Ἑλληνικὴν φυλακήν.
9. μαχαίρᾱς καὶ σφενδόνᾱς ἐπὶ τῆς ἁμάξης γεν .*
10. φυλακὴν Ἑλληνικὴν πέμπομεν εἰς τὴν ἀγοράν.

* for ν movable, see 17.

1. The house doors beautiful it had. 2. The guard he sent into the village. 3. In the village, he had beautiful houses. 4. Were you seizing the tents? 5. Out of the home you were not leading the guard. 6. We were not plundering the small villages. 7. The wagons in the market-place yous had. 8. To the sea I lead the Hellenic garrison. 9. Sabres and slings on the wagons he was carrying. 10. The garrison Hellenic we sent into the market-place.

1. He was destroying the tents.
2. We did not send the garrison to the bridge.
3. They plundered the wagons.
4. They did not lead the army from the village.
5. You lead the guard from the houses to the sea.

1. ἁρπάζε τὴν σκηνήν. 2. οὐκ πέμπομεν τὴν φυλακήν ἐπὶ τὴν γέφυραν. 3. ρπάζομεν τὴν ἁμαξήν. 4. οὐκ γομεν τὴν στρατίαν εἰς τὴν κώμην. 5. γες τὴν φυλακήν εἰς τᾱς οἰκίας ἐπὶ τὴν θαλαττήν.

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