Lesson V - Verbs . . . Introductory

S48. The Greek verb has three voices, the active, middle and passive.

S49. There are four Moods - the indicative, subjunctive, optative, and imperative. These are the finite moods. To them are added, in the conjugation of the verb, the infinitive and participles.

S50. There are seven Tenses - the present, imperfect, future, aorist, perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect. The present, future, perfect, and the future perfect indicative are called primary tenses; the imperfect, aorist, and pluperfect indicative are called secondary tenses.

S51. There are three Persons.

S52. There are three Numbers, as in nouns (31).

S53. The accent of verbs is recessive, i.e. it is thrown as far back as possible.

S54. The Stem of a verb is its fundamental part, from which its various tenses are formed.
The stem of λύο, loose, is λύ.
The stem of βουλεύω, plan, is βουλεύ.
The stem of πέμπω, send, is πέμπ.


S55. Paradigms - Present Indicative Active
SINGULAR PLURAL
λύο, I loose λύομεν, we loose
λύεις, you loose λύετε, yous loose
λύει, he looses λύουσι, they loose
   
DUAL  
λύετον the two loose
λύετον  

SINGULAR PLURAL
βουλεύω, I plan βουλεύομεν, we plan
βουλεύεις, you plan βουλεύετε, yous plan
βουλεύει, he plans βουλεύουσι, they plan
   
DUAL  
βουλεύετον the two plan
βουλεύετον  

SINGULAR PLURAL
πέμπω, I send πέμπομεν, we send
πέμπεις, you send πέμπετε, yous send
πέμπει, he sends πέμπουσι, they send
   
DUAL  
πέμπετον the two send
πέμπετον  

SINGULAR PLURAL
ἁρπάζω, I plunder ἁρπάζομεν, we plunder
ἁρπάζεις, you plunder ἁρπάζετε, yous plunder
ἁρπάζει, he plunders ἁρπάζουσι, they plunder
   
DUAL  
ἁρπάζετον the two loose
ἁρπάζετον  



S56. Vocabulary
ἄγω, lead, carry, bring
ἁρπάζω, sieze, rob, plunder
βουλεύω, plan, plot
ἔχω, have, hold
λύω, loose, destroy, break
πέμπω, send
Ἑλληνικη, adjective, Greek
πύλη, ης, ἡ, gate
φυλακή, ης, ἡ, guard, garrison
ἐξ, (before vowel), ἐκ, (before a consonant), preposition with gen., out of, from (a proclitic).
οὐ, (before a consonant), οὐκ, (before a smooth breathing), ουχ, (before a rough breathing), adverb, not (a proclitic).


S57.
1. βουλεύει. 2. λύουσι. 3. ἔχεις. 4. πέμπεις. 5. ἔχετε. 6. βουλεύομεν. 7. ἅγω. 8. ἁρπάζει. 9. ἁρπάζετε. 10. πέμπουσι.

Answers:
1. He plans. 2. They destroy. 3. You have. 4. You send. 5. Yous have. 6. We plan. 7. I lead. 8. He siezes. 9. Yous sieze. 10. They send.

S58. Translate:
1. He plunders. 2. We lead. 3. They plan. 4. You send. 5. I loose.

Answers:
1. ἁρπάζει. 2. ἅγομεν. 3. βουλεύουσι. 4. πέμπεις. 5. λύω.

ο|ω ---------» 1st Per Sing I ---
εις ---------» 2nd per Sing you ---
ει|ειν ------» 3rd Per Sing s/he, it ---s
ομεν --------» 1st Per Pl we ---
ετε ---------» 2nd Per Pl yous ---
ουσι|ουσιν --» 3rd Per Pl they ---

S59.
1. ἄγω στρατιὰν Ἑλληνικήν.
2. τὰς καλὰς σκηνὰς λύουσι.
3. οὐχ ἁρπάζω τὰς κώμας.
4. τὴν φυλακὴν ἄγουσιν ἐκ τῶν σκηνῶν.
5. ἔχουσιν οἰκίας καλάς.
6. αἱ κῶμαι πύλας οὐκ ἔχουσιν.
7. οὐ πέμπομεν τὴν φυλακήν.
8. ἁρπάζετε τὴν χώραν.
9. ἐκ τῶν κωμῶν πέμπει τὴν στρατιάν.
10. ἐκ τῆς ἀγορᾶς ἄγεις τὴν Ἑλληνικὴν φυλακήν;

Answers:
1. I lead the Greek army. 2. The beautiful tents they destroy. 3. I do not sieze the villages. 4. The guard they lead out of the tents. 5. They have homes beautiful. 6. Gates the villages they do not have. 7. We do not send the guard. 8. You all plunder the place. 9. Out of the villages he sends the army. 10. Out of the fields you lead the Hellenic guard.

S60.
1. Has he a Greek guard?
2. We are not destroying the gates.
3. I am sending the garrison.
4. You have a beautiful house.
5. He is not plundering the houses in the village.

Answers:
1. ἔχει Ἑλληνικὴ φυλακή; 2. οὐκ λύομεν τὰς πύλας. 3. πέμπω τὴν φύλακήν. 4. ἔχεις οἰκὶα καλαί. 5. οὐκ ἁρπάζει τὰς οικίας ἐν τὴν κώμην.

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